My name is Else Marit Inderberg.
I am a Principal Investigator at
the University Hospital at the Norwegian Radium Hospital site in Oslo, Norway.
I will give a presentation on the latest advances in
the development of CAR and TCR T-cell treatments for solid tumors.
This is the cancer immunity cycle,
which explains briefly how the immune system is
activated by cancer cells and can react against them.
Some cancer cells will die and release cancer proteins or antigens, as seen in stage one.
These antigens are then taken up by
dendritic cells and other antigen-presenting cells will
migrate to lymph nodes to present the cancer antigens on MHC molecules to T-cells.
Cancer-specific T-cells will become activated and
proliferate before they go into the bloodstream to look for tumor cells.
Tumors become infiltrated by T-cells,
recognizing the same cancer antigens and cancer cells are killed to
release new antigens and the cycle is repeated with a broader immune response.
Adoptive cell therapy using ex vivo expanded tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes or Tils,
has been the most effective treatment for patients
with metastatic melanoma with a response rate
of over 50 percent and durable responses in 20 percent of patients.
However, in other cancers,
Tils are not easy to culture and different strategies
engineering cancer-specific lymphocytes have been developed.
Patient T-cells from the blood can be genetically modified to express
chimeric antigen receptors antigen T-cell receptors, TCRs.
These are then expanded ex vivo before that reinfused back into the patient.