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A warm welcome to everybody participating in
this lecture today, where we're going to discuss the principles of transplantation.
My name is Kathryn Wood, I'm Professor Emerita of immunology at the University of Oxford,
where I work in the Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, alongside the transplantation team.
A few definitions around transplantation - both solid organ transplantation
and bone marrow, or haematopoietic stem cell, transplantation -
just to orientate ourselves and get us started on this lecture.
In organ transplantation there are a number of different ways a transplant can
be performed, between a donor and a recipient.
The first, shown at the top of the slide, is an 'autograft', where tissue is
taken from the same individual, and re-implanted after a surgical procedure.
The second option, which is similar (but not necessarily the same thing) is called an 'isograft',
where tissue from the individual is taken, stored, and re-implanted at a later date.
The most common option in terms of organ transplantation for organ failure is
so-called 'allografting', or transplantation between individuals that are not genetically identical,
that's shown in the third line of this definition slide.
You can see I've tried to illustrate that by showing a transplant occurring from a blue donor
into a red recipient.
In this case, it's the recipient's immune system that responds to the organ that has been transplanted.
The final element of this slide is 'xenotransplantation' or 'xenografting',
where an organ is taken from a different species and transplanted into a host.
The most common approach that's being investigated experimentally at the moment
in this context is where pig organs, genetically modified in most cases, are being investigated as
potential sources of donor organs for human transplantation in the future.
However, this is still very much at an experimental stage, and not used for clinical transplantation at present.
In bone marrow transplantation, or haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the opposite is true;