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Hi everyone, my name is Omer Dushek and I'm an associate professor
at the Sir William Dunn School of Pathology at the University of Oxford and
today I'm going to be giving a lecture on signal transduction by
a variety of surface receptors that are found on leukocytes or immune cells.
The key objective for today will be to understand
the molecular mechanisms of how these diverse surface receptors and leukocytes
integrate their signalling and you'll see that some of
these receptors integrate their signals quite
proximal to the membrane and some more distally
Here, for example, is a signal transduction diagram showing you
surface receptors found on T cells and showing the T cell receptor here in the centre along
with receptors that are known to enhance T cell activation called co-stimulatory receptors
and those that tend to inhibit T cell activation, called co-inhibitory receptors.
All these receptors transduce signals which integrate and ultimately
drive the activation of various signalling pathways,
such as those that lead to up-regulation or activation of transcription factors themselves
leading to, for example, the production of cytokines.
I just want to highlight that this lecture will be focused on
signal transduction and not on receptor triggering.
Receptor triggering is the process by which ligand binding to a surface receptor leads
to proximal intracellular signalling and there's
various mechanisms that lead to that initial signalling event.
We'll be focusing on what happens once there is a signal
inside the cell and how that integrates between different surface receptors.
Because many interesting surface receptors on
immune cells integrate their signals quite proximal to the membrane,
I'm going to emphasise a lot of the receptor-proximal molecular information,.
and I'm going to simplify the more downstream signalling pathways.
Lastly, as you'll see I'll focus the lecture on signalling in T cells but I'll show that
the concepts that I'll explain today will actually apply to
many different immune cells and I'll try to highlight that where I can.