Hello and welcome. My name is Lucio Alberto Baena-Lopez
and I'm a research scientist in the University of Oxford.
We will revising this lecture,
the main interrelated forms of
cell death and the crosstalk that they have with immune system.
The content of this lecture contains two parts.
The first part, you will provide a general definition of cell death.
You will discuss the general biological and evolutionary significance of cell death.
You will also provide a molecular description of
the major mechanisms regulating cell death in all their forms.
Finally, you will describe
the key secondary messengers that activate the different apoptotic programs.
Part 1, molecular overview of the main mechanisms of regulated cell death.
Cell death general definition.
Cell death is the biological event that happens
when cells stop all their metabolic functions,
and ultimately, this disrupts the activity of all their subcellular components.
Cell death can be accidental, and therefore uncontrolled.
Exposure to extreme mechanical, physical,
or chemical conditions can suddenly interrupt the activity of
key subcellular components facilitating the demolition of a cell.
This form of death cannot be prevented and it should
be distinguished from the different forms of regulated cell death.
In contrast to accidental cell death,
regulated cell death depends on
highly controlled genetic programs and disrupt
a specific subcellular functions in a control manner.
Cells can die in different ways by using
precise and highly regulated mechanisms of cell demolition,
in which multiple genes evolutionarily conserved participate.
Some extend regulated cell death can be considered an extreme form of
cell differentiation that happens when cells
fails to perform their normal intracellular routines.
Important question to answer is,
why cell death needed,
what's the biological meaning of cell death?
This question is easy to answer in the context of multicellular organisms,
but more difficult in the context of unicellular organisms.