Hello everyone, I am Maitri Shah,
I'm a Postdoctoral Fellow in Dr. George Calin's lab
at MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas.
Today, I'll be talking about
the recent advances in the field of non-coding RNAs in cancer,
particularly those in the last two years
that have influenced research and clinical practice.
Integrated use of advanced genome analysis platforms in recent years by consortia
such as the Human Genome Project and the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements or ENCODE Project,
have revealed that the transcription and processing of
the human genome yields a diverse catalog of non-coding RNAs.
The protein-coding genes occupy less than two percent of the human genome.
These protein-coding genes account for approximately one-third of all annotated genes;
whereas, long and small non-coding RNAs genes,
together account for 40 percent of the genes.
Considering their ubiquitous presence and diversity,
these non-coding RNAs have attracted a lot of attention in the past decade and
extensive research has been performed to understand
their role in normal cellular physiological processes,
as well as in human diseases.
Non-coding RNAs are arbitrarily classified into
short and long non-coding RNA based on the transcript size.
Small non-coding RNAs are shorter than 200 nucleotides.
This category includes microRNAs,
endogenous small interfering RNAs or siRNAs,
small nucleolar RNAs or snoRNAs,
and PIWI-interacting RNAs or piRNAs.
Long non-coding RNAs are longer than 200 nucleotides
and include long intergenic non-coding RNAs or lincRNAs,
natural antisense transcripts or NATs,
transcribed ultra-conserved regions or T-UCRs,
long enhancer non-coding RNAs,
non-coding repeat sequences, and pseudogenes.
First, I would like to talk about microRNAs,