I'm Annaliesa Anderson, the Chief Scientific Officer at
the bacterial vaccines at Pfizer and I'm going to present
the second part of a two-part series that discusses the importance of
vaccines in reducing antibiotic exposure and preventing antimicrobial resistance.
In this part of the lecture,
I will review the vaccines that are under
development that have the potential to reduce AMR.
The global mobilization actions about how to use vaccines against AMR,
barriers to maximizing licensed vaccine use,
and also efforts towards better utilization of vaccines against AMR.
In this first section,
I will review the vaccines that are in development
that can contribute towards reducing AMR.
It'll be divided into two sections.
The first, vaccines are in late-stage clinical development,
and then the second will cover vaccines that are in early stage research.
Clostridioides difficile infection, also known as CDI,
is a significant unmet medical need.
Its caused by a gram-positive bacteria called clostridium difficile or
C. difficile and it expresses toxins that causes severe diarrhea.
Often people catch this disease because they've taken
antibiotics and the antibiotics kill the bacteria in their gut that is
normally there and it helps the clostridioides difficile from
overtaking and growing well and producing the toxins that cause the disease.
In the US, there are nearly quarter of a million hospital of
associated cases of CDI every year with over 12 and a half thousands deaths.
The CDC considers Clostridium difficile infections
as hazard level urgent that is associated
with high levels of untreatable or hard to treat disease
because even though the bacteria may be susceptible to some antibiotics,
the fact that it causes and produces spores makes the antibiotics much harder to work.
Currently, there is no vaccine to prevent either the initial case of C. difficile
or the recurrent cases that occur because of
the fact that the spores then germinate to cause disease.