Recent advances in diagnosis and interventions in ophthalmology

Published on September 28, 2017   36 min
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Hello. My name is Rebecca Kaye. I'm an Academic Clinical Fellow in Ophthalmology at The University of Southampton in Professor Andrew Lotery's group. Today, I will be speaking about Recent Advances in Diagnosis and New Interventions in Ophthalmology over the last few years. This is a presentation compiled both by myself and Professor Andrew Lotery, Professor of Ophthalmology at The University of Southampton.
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To give you an overview, the first part of the talk will cover basic retinal anatomy, some of the current imaging techniques available for retinal imaging, and new imaging techniques and their role in diagnosis. Then we will talk about some new medical interventions in retinal disease, the role of genetics in retinal ophthalmology, and new interventions targeting retinal diseases, including CRISPR-cas9.
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Vision is a highly complex process that requires the coordinated activity of both the eye and the brain. For an individual to see, the initial steps are performed by the retina, the light sensitive neuronal tissue situated at the back of the eye. Here, in the first image, you can see a fundus photograph of the eye which demonstrates the retina and the optic disc. Simply put, there are two types of photoreceptors present in the retina, rods and cones. When light reaches these photoreceptors, photons are absorbed by a photopigment, activating a cascade that converts this light signal into an electrochemical signal. These electrochemical signals are then transferred through bipolar cells to ganglion cells, and are finally converted into action potentials that are transmitted to the brain. The second image shown here is a histological representation of the retina, demonstrating its various layers. Given this crucial role of the retina in vision, the majority of diseases that lead to blindness are caused by an acquired or inherited degeneration of the retina. This review will therefore focus on novel diagnostic techniques and therapeutic interventions for retinal diseases.
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Recent advances in diagnosis and interventions in ophthalmology

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