Signal transduction by leukocyte receptors

Published on December 12, 2021   30 min

Other Talks in the Series: The Immune System - Key Concepts and Questions

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Hi everyone, my name is Omer Dushek and I'm an associate professor at the Sir William Dunn School of Pathology at the University of Oxford and today I'm going to be giving a lecture on signal transduction by a variety of surface receptors that are found on leukocytes or immune cells.
The key objective for today will be to understand the molecular mechanisms of how these diverse surface receptors and leukocytes integrate their signalling and you'll see that some of these receptors integrate their signals quite proximal to the membrane and some more distally Here, for example, is a signal transduction diagram showing you surface receptors found on T cells and showing the T cell receptor here in the centre along with receptors that are known to enhance T cell activation called co-stimulatory receptors and those that tend to inhibit T cell activation, called co-inhibitory receptors. All these receptors transduce signals which integrate and ultimately drive the activation of various signalling pathways, such as those that lead to up-regulation or activation of transcription factors themselves leading to, for example, the production of cytokines. I just want to highlight that this lecture will be focused on signal transduction and not on receptor triggering. Receptor triggering is the process by which ligand binding to a surface receptor leads to proximal intracellular signalling and there's various mechanisms that lead to that initial signalling event. We'll be focusing on what happens once there is a signal inside the cell and how that integrates between different surface receptors. Because many interesting surface receptors on immune cells integrate their signals quite proximal to the membrane, I'm going to emphasise a lot of the receptor-proximal molecular information,. and I'm going to simplify the more downstream signalling pathways. Lastly, as you'll see I'll focus the lecture on signalling in T cells but I'll show that the concepts that I'll explain today will actually apply to many different immune cells and I'll try to highlight that where I can.