Hello, my name is Duane Gubler.
I'm a professor emeritus at the Duke-NUS Medical School in Singapore.
I have a long career in dengue.
I've been working on dengue for nearly 50 years.
I spent 25 years at the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention prior to going to Hawaii and to Singapore.
I was the founding director of the CDC Dengue branch in Puerto Rico.
Let's change topics and now talk about the changing epidemiology of dengue,
and why we've seen such a dramatic increase in epidemic dengue in recent years.
From historical standpoint, you'll have to go back to the post-World War II years when
both the Allied and Japanese armies in Asia spread
both the mosquitoes and the viruses around the Asia-Pacific region.
By the end of the war,
most countries in Southeast Asia had all four serotypes co-circulating.
But this shows a time sequence from 1943-2013,
you'll see that the top left here,
very little dengue in 1943-1959,
occasional small outbreaks out in Asia.
In the '60s, dengue started to rear its head and a few more outbreaks in Asia.
In the '70s, significantly more outbreaks
occurring in Asia and small outbreaks occurring in the American region.
This accelerated in the 1980s and '90s and 2000s
till by the present time we have dengue circling the globe.