Now, let me ask the
question, can the same principles,
somewhat complex, that I've just
walk you through that we've used
to create an HIV vaccine be applied
to produce a vaccine to prevent
the acquisition or transmission
of sound falciparum malaria,
the most virulent and
lethal form of malaria.
This disease is transmitted
by the bite of mosquitoes
that contain infectious parasites.
The problem, then, is infection
with Plasmodium falciparum,
the proper name of the
falciparum malaria parasite,
can induce immunity to the
red cell stage of the disease,
reducing its severity.
But that infection does not
prevent infection or transmission.
In other words, just
like for HIV, we
have to have a vaccine that is
better than natural infection
at inducing protection.
That is, the challenge to
prevent infection or transmission
of the infection to others is
that the vaccine must be more
protective than natural infection.
It must induce an
unnatural form of immunity
to relatively invariant pre red
cells stages of the parasite,
or stages of the parasite called
gametocytes that are transmitted
into other mosquitoes, and are
then ultimately in that mosquito
turned into new parasites that
can affect another individual.
And those antigens are not targets
of natural immunity in infection.