Bacterial vaccines in development 1

Published on September 30, 2015   20 min

Other Talks in the Series: Vaccines

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Hello. My name is Kathrin Jansen. I'm a senior vice president at Pfizer responsible for vaccine research and development. Today, I will discuss bacterial vaccines in development.
Today's lecture is intended to give you a brief overview of licensed bacterial vaccines and some examples of bacterial vaccines in development, to discuss key principles of bacterial vaccine design and development, to share with you some insights in the R&D efforts to develop bacterial vaccines, and I will be using three examples. The examples I've chosen are programs that my colleagues and I are working on at Pfizer, so they are real-life examples of bacterial vaccine development. Specifically, we will touch on vaccines in development to protect against toxin-mediated diseases. The example is Clostridium difficile. We will touch on vaccines in development to protect against a very complex organism, the example is Staphylococcus aureus, where the disease is mediated by the bacterium itself and the virulence factors that it expresses. Finally, we will discuss recently licensed vaccines to protect a Gram-negative bacterium, Neisseria meningitidis, serogroup B.
Vaccines to prevent human bacterial diseases have been developed in some form or another since the 19th century. Louis Pasteur was the first to develop several bacterial vaccines against fowl cholera, anthrax, and human cholera. As you know, Léon Charles Albert Calmette and Jean-Marie Camille Guérin developed the first vaccine against TB. Effective antitoxin antibody preparations against bacteria causing diphtheria and tetanus were produced by Emil von Behring and Kitasato Shibasaburu in the 1930s. Vaccines against these bacterial diseases were developed that have greatly reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with these bacterial pathogens. The first polysaccharide vaccines were introduced in the 1970s against Haemophilus influenza Type B, Neisseria meningitidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Over the last decade and a half, glycoconjugate vaccines have been developed for these pathogens to protect against the most prevalent strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. These vaccines are significantly more immunogenic particularly in young children because the polysaccharide conjugate vaccines induce immune memory. Vaccines against these bacterial diseases have been exquisitely effective and have saved millions of lives globally since their introduction and widespread use. Despite these considerable advances, however, a lot remains to be done, and there are still many important bacterial pathogens for which lifesaving vaccines are not yet available.