We now will
discuss in more detail, cancers
caused by human papilloma virus.
Here you see, the uterus
of a patient and a vagina
and the cervix, where this virus
strikes to establish itself
first in a persistent infection.
And after many years the virus
can cause premalignant lesions.
And after a couple more years,
you then develop cancer.
In the middle you see the virus.
And the yellow structure on this
virus indicates the L1 protein.
against the L1 protein
folded as a virus-like particle
induces neutralizing antibodies
that are characteristic for the
two preventive vaccines that
are currently marketed,
Cervarix and Guardasil.
HPV causes anogenital and
head and neck cancers.
More than half of
all of these lesions
are caused by high-risk
HPV16, which causes
75% of vulva preneoplastic
premalignant lesions, more than 75%
of anal neoplasias,
but also more than 75%
of oropharyngeal head
and neck cancers.
In the case of cervical cancer
the implication of HPV16
is somewhat lower, but still
about 50% of involvement
in the causations of cervical
cancer and high-grade cervical
intraepithelial neoplasia, or CIN.
And there are unmet medical needs
also for the premalignant lesions.
VIN, CIN, PIN is penile, and AIN
in the US, Europe, and Japan.
And currently, even for
these premalignant lesions
there is no satisfactory treatment,
because the surgery is mutilating
and there are higher