Bacterial vaccines in development 2

Published on September 30, 2015   38 min

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Other Talks in the Series: Vaccines

0:04
I will now move on to describe vaccines in development against a highly complex pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus. This pathogen causes disease by expressing a number of virulence factors.
0:22
S. aureus causes the wide spreading of diseases ranging from relatively mild skin infections to life threatening wound and bloodstream infections. It is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in both health care-associated and community settings. In surgical patients, S. aureus infections are associated with high morbidity and mortality, prolongation of hospital stays, and an increase in health care costs. We also noted increases of antibotic resistance, most notably, meticillin resistance. There is an alarming increase in community acquired infections as well, in many settings, including pediatric populations. And I also listed on this slide, populations that are at high risk of S. aureus infection.
1:20
Now, Staphylococcus aureus is a challenging vaccine target. It's a highly successful commensal organism and about 30% of humans are colonized with staph aureus. Staph aureus exhibits a diverse array of virulence factors that facilitate colonization and evasion of host immune responses such as toxins, adhesion factors, it is a master in scavenging nutrients from the host, it exhibits capsular polysaccharides to evade phagocytosis, and it also has a number of virulence factors that interfere with appropriate immune host mediated immune response. Staph aureus shows extensive strain diversity. And most humans actually fail to generate functional antibodies against S. aureus following natural exposure, be it by colonization or infection. And the importance of this, I will describe a little bit later on.