I will now move on to describe
vaccines in development
against a highly complex
pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus.
This pathogen causes
disease by expressing
a number of virulence factors.
S. aureus causes the wide spreading
of diseases ranging from relatively
mild skin infections
to life threatening
wound and bloodstream infections.
It is a leading cause of
morbidity and mortality
in both health care-associated
and community settings.
In surgical patients,
S. aureus infections
are associated with high
morbidity and mortality,
prolongation of hospital stays,
and an increase in health care costs.
We also noted increases
of antibotic resistance,
There is an alarming
increase in community
acquired infections as
well, in many settings,
including pediatric populations.
And I also listed on this slide,
populations that are at high risk
of S. aureus infection.
Now, Staphylococcus aureus is
a challenging vaccine target.
It's a highly successful commensal
organism and about 30% of humans
are colonized with staph aureus.
Staph aureus exhibits a diverse
array of virulence factors
that facilitate colonization and
evasion of host immune responses
such as toxins, adhesion factors,
it is a master in scavenging nutrients
from the host, it exhibits
capsular polysaccharides to evade
phagocytosis, and it also has
a number of virulence factors
that interfere with
appropriate immune host
mediated immune response.
Staph aureus shows
extensive strain diversity.
And most humans actually fail
to generate functional antibodies
against S. aureus
following natural exposure,
be it by colonization or infection.
And the importance of this,
I will describe a little bit later on.