Genetics and management of inherited cancer predisposition 1

Published on February 29, 2016   25 min

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Other Talks in the Series: Cancer Genetics

JOSHUA SHIFFMAN: Hello. My name is Joshua Shiffman. I am a pediatric oncologist at the University of Utah, where I take care of patients with hereditary cancer syndromes as well as do research in the field.
Today, we're going to talk about the importance of family history. We will cover several of the more common hereditary cancer syndromes including, GI cancers, breast cancers, Li-Fraumeni Syndrome, Paraganglioma and VHL syndromes. And finally, we'll end with some brief discussion about research in the field of hereditary cancers specifically related to comparative oncology.
Cancer is quite common. In fact, it is one of the leading causes of death around the world, and 15 people will die from cancer every minute. Half of all men and a third of all women will develop cancer throughout their lifetime. This makes the study of cancer and the risk for cancer quite relative to disease and impact on human health.
In terms of the genetic risk for cancer, we believe that as many as 1 in 10 adults will have cancer that is caused to an inherited genetic risk. This comes to approximately 160,000 new diagnoses per year for cancer in the US alone. In terms of childhood cancer, we believe that it may be as high as 1 in 3 children who have developed cancer due to an inherited genetic risk. This comes to approximately 4,500 new diagnoses for cancer per year.
All told, when you add everything together and you take into account the carrier rates for some of the more common hereditary cancer syndromes, the genetic risk for cancer may be as high as 1.7 million people living in the US alone who are at higher risk for developing cancer. New research out of St. Jude's Children's Hospital, where they looked at childhood cancer and used a control cohort which included the 1000 Genome Project, estimated that nearly 1% of people who are in the healthy control population may actually be harboring high print penetrance genetic risk for cancer. This would put the rate of people living with cancer, at least in the US, as high as .3 million for those at risk due to underlying genetics. This is an incredibly high number. And what we'll talk about today is how can we identify those individuals? And most importantly, how can we make an impact on their lives and hopefully improve their outcome by detecting cancer at a really very early stage of development?

Genetics and management of inherited cancer predisposition 1

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