Genetic abnormalities in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Published on October 29, 2015   38 min

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Other Talks in the Series: Cancer Genetics

My name is Ching-Hon Pui. I'm a pediatric oncologist at Saint Jude Children's Research Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee, USA. This talk is about Genetic Abnormalities in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, focusing mainly on childhood cases. For the rest of the talk, I will mention its abbreviation, ALL. ALL as shown in a bone marrow smear on
the left, and as a white column of sediment on the right is the most common childhood cancer, representing one fourth of all cancers in children.
The treatment of children with ALL is one of the greatest success stories of modern medicine. The five-year survival rate has increased from 20 percent in the early 1960s to over 90 percent today. The main reason for this remarkable achievement included an effective treatment administered in controlled clinical trials, precise diagnosis and risk classification, and improved support care. Because of the ease to obtain leukemia samples, laboratory studies of child ALL have reviewed many of the principles underlying current knowledge of cancer cell biology, further boosting the treatment results.
With standard chromosomal and FISH analyses, specific genetic abnormalities can be found in 75-80 percent of child ALL cases. With a recent event of genome-wide analysis, virtually all cases can now be classified based on the primary genetic abnormalities, as shown in this slide.

Genetic abnormalities in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

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