name is Gholson Lyon,
and I'm on faculty at Cold
Spring Harbor Laboratory
as well as working at the Utah
Foundation for Biomedical Research.
And the topic of my lecture today
is on human genetic variation
and genotype-phenotype problem.
This is an illustration of
the earth, and on the right
side is an illustration
of a bacterial petri dish.
The earth is 4.5 billion years old.
And in the eons of time, there
are dinosaurs that basically
went extinct 65 million years ago.
And you can look at
dinosaur fossils at the Utah
Dinosaur National Monument as
illustrated in this illustration.
And if you want to be convinced
that dinosaurs existed,
you can look yourself at them in the
rocks before they were excavated.
And the only reason I'm
telling you this in the context
of human genetics is basically just
to illustrate to you that there is
an enormous amount of
time that has passed
and that evolution is operating
on the order of millions of years.
Also, if you want further proof
of dinosaurs having gone extinct,
there's the Yucatan Peninsula.
There's evidence there
of a crater where
a meteor hits and basically caused
the extinction of the dinosaurs.
So since the extinction
of the dinosaurs,
there was basically
many millions of years.
So this slide illustrates
the fact that humans
originate and migrate out of Africa
approximately 100,000 years ago.
And as shown in this
illustration, various homo sapien
species migrated and
populated parts of the world,
including crossing the Bering
Strait sometime between 15,000
to 35,000 years ago and then making
their way down into South America.
And I further illustrate
on this slide, the fact
that there's been an enormous amount
of time with many, many generations
in which case there's been many
different meiotic events thus
leading to much
And this population
from the migration
patterns of haplotypes
throughout human history.