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This talk focuses on the role of "Mitochondria in Reproduction and Fertility",
an exciting new field of research in which
our laboratory has now been working for several years.
My name is Pascale May-Panloup.
Currently, I am an Associate Professor and
Hospital Practitioner at the University Hospital of Angers,
a city in the west of France.
Mitochondria perform oxidative phosphorylation, OXPHOS,
a process leading to the production of ATP by
means of the energy released by the oxidation of nutrients,
and the transfer of electrons along the respiratory chain.
The respiratory chain contains four multi-enzematic complexes I to IV.
These generate a proton gradient across the mitochondrial inner membrane.
ATP sometimes or complex V,
then uses this proton gradient to produce ATP.
OXPHOS zipper is the central process providing most of
the energy required for all cellular functions.
OXPHOS, which is also the main user of oxygen in the cell,
generates much of the endogenous reactive oxygen species,
ROS implicated in regulating metabolic pathways,
but also in the production of oxidative stress.
Mitochondria also play a role in
several biosynthetic pathways such as those leading to the synthesis of hem,
nucleotide, steroid hormone, and amino acid.
But, also in apoptosis,
in calcium homeostasis, and in the production of various intermediate metabolites.
These players in entropic functions of mitochondria are
critical determinants in oogenesis and embryogenesis.
In addition to the production of energy,
they are all in the maintenance of the redox state, in cell signaling,
and gene expression, govern the fates of cells and
their differentiation events that are particularly important during development.