Metabolic communication in development and control of obesity 2

Published on January 31, 2016   25 min

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Other Talks in the Series: Obesity: Science, Medicine and Society

One of the most effective cures for obesity or means of tackling obesity is surgical intervention. Unfortunately, a low diet are effective for some individuals, the statistics show that most individuals achieve only a temporary effect in terms of sustained weight loss with dietary intervention. Gastric bypass on the other hand has been shown to have a much longer lasting effect. There are several studies that have looked at the effect of gastric bypass on the stomach and intestine microbiota. We know that gastric bypass achieves substantial and significant weight loss. We also know that the microbiota change after gastric bypass surgery. So now we really want to look at the relationship between the gut bacteria, the metabolic profile, and see if we can look at the mechanism by which gastric bypass surgery might be achieving weight loss.
The first port of call was a surgical model of gastric bypass. And this was the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, which is used in the U.K., for morbidly obese individuals. In the U.K., you'd have to have a BMI of greater than 40 or have some significant comorbidities at a lower BMI to be eligible for this type of surgery. We know that in many cases, as well as achieving weight loss, the gastric bypass surgery also cures or resolves type 2 diabetes and this happens in about 80 percent of the cases. In other countries around the world, they use gastric bypass surgery almost cosmetically, so if you're prepared to pay, then you can go and get gastric bypass surgery. So it's becoming increasingly prevalent all over the world, and we really do need to understand what are the mechanisms by which the weight loss occurs and what are the knock-on effects metabolically on the individual. So here we had two groups of rats, one was sham-operated in order to induce surgical stress as a control. The other group underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, 18 animals per group, and we looked at them pre-operatively and up to 8 weeks post-operation. We took urine, serum, and feces from these animals and then conducted both metabolic profiling and also looked at the 454 sequencing to establish the microbial composition.

Metabolic communication in development and control of obesity 2

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