Adjuvants and autoimmunity

Published on January 28, 2010 Reviewed on April 12, 2022   26 min

A selection of talks on Immunology & Inflammation

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Adjuvants and Autoimmunity, a quest for safer vaccine formulations by Eitan Israeli from the Center for Autoimmune Diseases, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Israel.
In this talk, we're gonna talk about different topics, the different types of adjuvants, adjuvants' role, adjuvants and toll-like receptors, mechanism of adjuvants effects, autoimmunity and environmental or natural adjuvants. We're gonna talk about adjuvant related diseases, the human adjuvant disease, silicon acid adjuvant and connective tissue diseases, macrophagic, mayofasciitis and the Gulf War syndrome. And we're gonna end up in conclusions and future goals.
Aluminum salt is an inorganic reagents, that carries the potential to augment immunogenicity. The aluminum salts includes aluminum phosphate and aluminum hydroxide, which are the most common adjuvants in human vaccines. The organic compound squalene is sometimes added to the preparation, originally obtained from shark liver oil, and is a biochemical precursor to steroids. Oil-based adjuvants, such as Freund's adjuvant and pristane are commonly found in some formulations of veterinary vaccines. Freund's incomplete adjuvants contains water in oral emulsions, and Freund's complete adjuvants has in addition killed mycobacteria. The mycobacteria added to the adjuvants attract macrophages and other cells to the injection site which enhances the immune response. Some novel oil in water emulsions are being developed by pharmaceutical companies like MF59, ASO3, advax and qs-21 virosomes contain a membrane bound haemagglutinin, and neuraminidase derived from influenza virus. Both facilitates the uptake into antigen presenting cells and mimics the natural immune response. In search of new and safer adjuvants, several new ones were developed by pharmaceutical companies utilizing new immunological and chemical innovations. Some, like IC31, which is the two components in static adjuvant signaling through TL9. And other TLR dependent adjuvant candidates are yet only in clinical development SRC 529, ISS, flagellin and TLR agonists. Some of the adjuvant properties of the bacterial walls of gram negative bacteria have been clearly attributed to the lipid A fraction of lipopolysaccharide. Similarly the antibiotic muramyl dipeptide, shown to been the smallest peptidic moiety of bacterial cell walls can replace mycobacteria in Freund's complete adjuvant.