Controlling mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production for cell signaling 1

Published on January 31, 2018   21 min

Other Talks in the Category: Cell Biology

0:00
Hello, my name is Ryan Mailloux, and I'm an assistant professor of biochemistry at Memorial University of Newfoundland. In this lecture, I'll be discussing controlling mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production for cell signalling.
0:14
I will start this lecture with an introduction that focuses on giving a background on how mitochondria combust carbon to make energy and reactive oxygen species. This will be followed by a brief discussion on oxygen and its radicals, and the difference between oxidative eustress, and oxidative distress and how these two terms properly defined the dichotomous nature of reactive oxygen species in biology. This will then be followed by a few slides on the signalling properties of reactive oxygen species, focusing specifically on hydrogen peroxide. I'll then start moving through the core of this lecture, which is understanding mitochondrial ROS release. In the first part of this discussion, I will go through some of the basics of how mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species, focusing on the 12 different ROS forming sites associated with energy metabolism. After this, I'll go through controlling mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production focusing on proton leaks, supercomplex assemblies, and redox switches. And then finally, I will discuss the implications of redox switches in controlling mitochondrial reactive oxygen species signaling.
1:21
Mitochondria fulfill various essential functions of metabolism, which includes meeting cellular energy demands through ATP production. This is achieved via the combustion of carbon and the liberation of electrons which are then used to produce ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondria are also the most important source of cellular reactive oxygen species namely superoxide, and hydrogen peroxide, the proximal reactive oxygen species generated by mitochondria, and the most important oxy-radicals formed by biological systems. Importantly, the formation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide relies on the same electron transfer pathways that mitochondria used to make ATP. And although ROS are damaging at high levels, it is now appreciated that low grade mitochondrial ROS production specifically hydrogen peroxide, is vital for regulating various cellular functions.
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Controlling mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production for cell signaling 1

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