Inflammation and type 2 diabetes

Published on May 22, 2013 Archived on February 27, 2022   25 min

A selection of talks on Cell Biology

My name is Marc Donath, and I'm going to present a talk on "Inflammation in Type 2 Diabetes".
The basic concept is that the innate immune system has a sub-specialization which is able to recognize dangers that come from metabolic stress. The idea is that in the same way as the innate immune system is recognizing specific patterns of virus or microbes or bacteria, in the same way the innate immune system has the ability to sense metabolic stress and then to respond to it in a very specific manner.
I will now continue on showing you how we came to this concept and how this translates into diabetes. Our initial study was done in the Psamommys obesus, an animal model of diabetes, where we observed that glucose itself can induce an apoptotic process. As you can see in this slide, increasing glucose concentration induces apoptosis in the Beta cells which are labeled in black when they become apoptotic.
Next, we were wondering how this glucose induces apoptosis, and then we observed that glucose induces cytokine IL-1 Beta by metabolic stress. Increasing glucose concentration, as we can see here, induces a release of IL-1 Beta, in the human islets. We did a lot of control to this study showing that this is a specific response of the islet so for example the metabolically inactive L-glucose which induces also an osmotic pressure did not induce the IL-1 Beta release.