This is Leon Platanias from Northwestern University in Chicago,
and today I will discuss the signaling pathways by
which the interferon family of receptors and ligands work.
I will review work going back many years and
come up to more recent and up-to-date information,
and I will try to cover up both mechanisms that
regulate transcriptional activation in the interferon system,
as well as MRNA translation of interferon-stimulated genes.
The interferons were discovered initially in 1957,
and that was work that was performed by primarily two researchers.
One was Alick Isaacs and the other one was Jean Lindenmann,
and they were able to provide evidence at that point
for the existence of a substance -
At that time interferon was thought to be only one -
The evidence that they provided was that there is a substance, a cytokine,
although it was not called cytokine in those days,
that inhibits viral replication;
and that was a very important discovery at the time.
Those days, they didn't have very modern equipment,