From DNA to ProteinsThe Multiple Levels of Regulation

Published October 2007 Updated December 2016 23 lectures
Prof. Panagiotis Tsonis
University of Dayton, USA
Summary

In the past few years several advances have considerably elevated our understanding on gene expression. Among the technological breakthroughs are microarray analysis, imaging and the solution of the three-dimensional structures of the major players involved in gene expression. The contribution of these technologies is immense. Microarray analysis has enabled us... read moreto understand global gene expression and realize patterns in gene discovery and function, otherwise impossible to do. The 3-D structural analysis has allowed us to visualize how regulatory molecules function and interact with each other. Based on this it is imperative to think about gene expression outside the previous domains of pure molecular biology and biochemistry. The series of these talks aim to present how scientists think now about the complex events of gene regulation and expression.

The series have been designed to take the audience to a trip from the DNA to the final destruction of the proteins. After a general overview on gene regulation a talk with cover the organization of DNA in the nucleus and how this allows expression and another talk will deal with an overview of DNA replication. Then there are three talks about transcription of DNA to RNA. This is the main level of gene regulation and the three talks are designed to cover both the initiation and elongation of transcription. There are different talks for the prokaryotes and eukaryotes and emphasis is given to the structure of the responsible RNA polymerases. One the primary RNA transcript has been made there are many modifications, such as splicing, capping, polyA addition and RNA editing. Also, regulation can occur at this level by the action of RNAi and miRNA and therefore, talks are devoted to these areas as well. Especially miRNA regulation is quite a new and exciting discovery with far more reaching contribution that was ever thought. Two talks will follow dealing with regulation of mRNA export and visualization of transcripts and dynamics in the nucleus and cytoplasm. The exported mRNA is destined for translation in the cytoplasm and several talks are devoted to the process of protein synthesis. The solution of the 3-D structures of ribosomes in action has enormously facilitated how we view protein synthesis. After protein synthesis proteins must fold correctly and eventually degraded and these events will be presented in two different talks. Finally, the last two talks will present recent discoveries using microarray analysis, which led to the identification of new genes, their possible function and interactions.