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The transcription factor NF-Kappa B: an evolutionarily conserved mediator of immune and inflammatory responses
A selection of talks on Immunology
Inflammation: purposes, mechanisms and development
- Prof. Pietro Ghezzi
- University of Urbino, Italy
Studying immune responses “one cell at a time”
- Dr. Mir-Farzin Mashreghi
- Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum, Germany
SANKAR GHOSH: The Transcription Factor NF-κB, An Evolutionarily Conserved Mediator of Immune and Inflammatory Responses, presented by Sankar Ghosh, professor, section of Immunobiology and Department of Molecular Biophysics & Biochemistry, Yale University School of Medicine.
Inducible transcription factors play a key role in communicating changes in the environment to the cell, thereby allowing the cell to adapt by modifying its pattern of gene expression. In mammalian cells, engagement of cell surface receptors trigger signal transduction pathways that ultimately lead to activation of certain transcription factors, either through transcriptional or post-transcriptional mechanisms. Well-known examples of inducible transcription factors include steroid hormone receptors, activating protein-1, or AP-1, and of course, NF-κB.
NF-κB is an ubiquitously expressed inducible transcription factor. It is found in all mammalian cells and tissues. However, it is present in an inactive form. It is inactive because it is bound to a class of inhibitory proteins known as IκBs, and the binding of IκB masks the nuclear localizing signal on NF-κB, thereby sequestering this NF-κB/IκB complex in the cytoplasm. When cells are stimulated, the activation of signal transduction pathways ultimately lead to the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB, and we'll be talking more about in subsequent slides. That degraded IκB then releases the bound NF-κB, thereby unmasking the nuclear localizing signals on NF-κB, which then migrates into the nucleus and binds to NF-κB binding sites on promoters of gene, thereby driving NF-κB responsive gene expression.