The type I interferon system and viruses

Published on October 1, 2007 Updated on July 31, 2018   36 min

Other Talks in the Series: Viruses and Viral Diseases

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Hello, and welcome to this presentation on the Type 1 Interferon and Viruses. My name is Adolfo Garcia-Sastre, and I am professor at the Department of Microbiology of Mount-Sinai School of Medicine in New York. I will be reviewing the antiviral action of Type 1 interferon, a major component of the first line of innate immune responses against viruses, and the ways viruses have evolved mechanisms to counteract this system, resulting in a complicated model
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between viruses and hosts that has important implications in virus replication, virus pathogenicity, and host immunity. Interferon is, in fact, the first cytokine discovered in 1957 by Isaacs and Lindenmann. These researchers made the very interesting observation that chicken cells treated with partially heat-inactivated influenza viruses secreted some type of factor into the supernatant that, when used onto new, fresh chicken cells, made these cells refractory to be infected with live influenza virus. This secreted factor with antiviral activity was named interferon due to its ability to interfere with viral replication. Today, we know that there are several classes of interferon encoded by different genes. Type 1 interferon, or interferon-alpha/beta, is being secreted by most cells in response to viral infection, and comprise one single species of interferon-beta, and many closely related species of interferon-alphas. The reasons for this wide diversity of interferon-alpha/beta molecules are still not well understood. Both interferon-beta and interferon-alphas interact with the same receptor in order to induce their antiviral activity. Interferon-lambdas are recently discovered interferons that use a different receptor to the interferon-alpha/beta receptor, but induce the activation of the same signal transduction pathway, resulting also in antiviral effects. Interferon-gamma is also named Type 2 interferon. Like the Type 1 interferons, interferon-gamma has antiviral activity. But interferon-gamma is secreted by specific cells of the immune system, such as T and NK cells, in response to all the cytokine stimuli, like IL-12.
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The type I interferon system and viruses

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