The pathogenesis of tuberculosis

Published on February 28, 2013 Archived on November 28, 2021   47 min

A selection of talks on Infectious Diseases

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Hello. My name is William Bishai. I'm from the Kwazulu Natal Research Institute for TB and HIV in Johns Hopkins. This presentation is on the pathogenesis of tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis is a human infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It can also be caused by two other closely related species that are members of the M.tb. complex, M. bovis, and M. africanum. While TB generally affects the lungs. It can also lead to extrapulmonary TB in any part of the human body. As in panel A, extensive pulmonary tuberculosis effects, that's left lung, particularly in the left upper lobe with many cavities and granulomatous inflammation, but also cavities in the left lower lobe; B, is cerebral tuberculosis with those grayish lesions of the brainstem and lower cerebrum; C, splenic tuberculosis with multiple granulomas; D, cardiac tuberculosis; E, gastrointestinal TB with two large lesions; F, renal tuberculosis; G TB of lymph nodes, a very common occurrence; H, eye tuberculosis, and in I and J, extensive TB lesions of the skin.
In this talk, we'll focus on pulmonary tuberculosis and how the microbe, M.tb. causes infection from a pathogenesis point of view. Just to show the magnitude of the virulence of this pathogen, the bottom-left panel shows a large cavity in a human lung. On the right is a chest x-ray showing a tennis ball-sized pulmonary cavity in the right lower lobe of another individual affected by pulmonary tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis or the tubercle bacillus is a rod-shaped,