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How bacterial pathogens avoid phagocyte killing
Published on January 31, 2013 23 min
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Hi. My name is Thomas Areschoug. I'm working at the Division of Medical Microbiology at Lund University in Sweden. I will give you a lecture on how bacterial pathogens avoid phagocyte killing.
Bacterial evasion of phagocyte killing is an important step in the pathogenesis of bacterial disease. Today, numerous bacterial mechanisms to avoid phagocyte killing have been described in the literature. These studies are not only important for our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of bacterial disease, but they may also reveal which parts of the host's immune system are of importance for host protection against bacteria.
The aim of my presentation is to, first, give you a brief background on phagocytic cells. We'll focus on the macrophages and the neutrophils. We will then go through the different types of phagocytosis and phagocytic killing mechanisms. Finally, I will give you a few examples of bacterial mechanisms to evade phagocytosis and phagocytic killing, including both classical examples and a few novel mechanisms described more recently.
All macrophages stem from a common myeloid progenitor cell in the bone marrow, which migrates into the blood and develops into monocytes. The monocytes then migrate into various types of tissues in the body and differentiate into resident macrophages with a distinct phenotype dependent on the tissue location. In the skin, for example, you find the Langerhans cells, Kupffer cells in the liver, osteoclasts in the bone, and microglia in the central nervous system. In the tissues, you can also see more recently recruited macrophages that have been activated by various stimuli.