Parasite transmission by arthropods

Published on October 26, 2010   41 min

Other Talks in the Series: Vector-Borne Diseases

Welcome to the lecture on parasitic lung infections. I am Doctor V. K. Vijayan, working as Advisor at Bhopal Memorial Hospital & Research Centre in Bhopal, India and was the former Director of Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi. I have divided this lecture into two parts. The first part deals with lung infections
caused by protozoa, cestodes and trematodes. The second lecture will be on infections caused by nemotode parasites. The important protozoan parasites that cause permanent diseases are given in this table. Entamoeba histolytica causes pulmonary amebiasis.
Leishmania donovani causes pulmonary leishmaniasis. Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, and Plasmodium ovale are important parasites that cause pulmonary malaria. Babesia microti and Babesia divergens cause pulmonary bebesiosis, and Toxoplasma gondii causes pulmonary toxoplasmosis. Pulmonary hydatid disease is caused by Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis. Pulmonary schistosomiasis is caused by Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosooma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum. And pulmonary paragonimiasis is caused by Paragonimus westermanii. Pulmonary amebiasis is one of the most common parasitic infections, worldwide. Amoebic infection results from ingestion of Entameba histolytica cysts in fecally contaminated food, water or from hands. Pleuropulmonary amebiasis occurs by extension from hepatic amebiasis. And invasive amebiasis have been reported in patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus. The main symptoms in pulmonary amebiasis are fever, cough, hemoptysis, right upper quadrant abdominal pain and chest pain. Expectoration of anchovy sauce-like pus indicates amebiasis. And some patients may present with lung abscess, hepatopleural fistula, bronchopleural fistula with pyo-pneumothorax. In addition, some of them may present with respiratory distress and shock. The diagnosis of pulmonary amebiasis is suggested by the findings of increased hemidiaphragm chest x-rays, tender hepatomegaly, pleural effusion and basal pulmonary involvement. Active trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica can be found in sputum or pleural pus. Microscopic examination of stool samples may reveal cysts or trophozoites of amebae. The presence of amebae in the stool does not indicate that the disease is due to the pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica because two other non-pathogenic issues formed in humans. For example, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii