Adjuvants and Autoimmunity, a quest for
safer vaccine formulations by
Eitan Israeli from the Center for
Autoimmune Diseases, Sheba Medical Center,
In this talk,
we're gonna talk about different topics,
the different types of adjuvants,
adjuvants' role, adjuvants and
mechanism of adjuvants effects,
autoimmunity and environmental or
We're gonna talk about adjuvant related
diseases, the human adjuvant disease,
silicon acid adjuvant and
connective tissue diseases, macrophagic,
mayofasciitis and the Gulf War syndrome.
And we're gonna end up in conclusions and
Aluminum salt is an inorganic reagents,
that carries the potential
to augment immunogenicity.
The aluminum salts includes aluminum
phosphate and aluminum hydroxide,
which are the most common
adjuvants in human vaccines.
The organic compound squalene is sometimes
added to the preparation, originally
obtained from shark liver oil, and
is a biochemical precursor to steroids.
such as Freund's adjuvant and
pristane are commonly found in some
formulations of veterinary vaccines.
Freund's incomplete adjuvants
contains water in oral emulsions, and
Freund's complete adjuvants has
in addition killed mycobacteria.
The mycobacteria added to
the adjuvants attract macrophages and
other cells to the injection site
which enhances the immune response.
Some novel oil in water
emulsions are being developed by
pharmaceutical companies like MF59,
ASO3, advax and
qs-21 virosomes contain
a membrane bound haemagglutinin,
and neuraminidase derived
from influenza virus.
Both facilitates the uptake into
antigen presenting cells and
mimics the natural immune response.
In search of new and safer adjuvants,
several new ones were developed by
pharmaceutical companies utilizing new
immunological and chemical innovations.
Some, like IC31,
which is the two components
in static adjuvant signaling through TL9.
And other TLR dependent
adjuvant candidates are yet
only in clinical development SRC 529,
ISS, flagellin and TLR agonists.
Some of the adjuvant properties of the
bacterial walls of gram negative bacteria
have been clearly attributed to the lipid
A fraction of lipopolysaccharide.
Similarly the antibiotic
shown to been the smallest peptidic
moiety of bacterial cell walls
can replace mycobacteria in
Freund's complete adjuvant.