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Today we will talk about a nuclear control of the electron transport chain gene expression.
The talk outline will be a summary of an introduction,
followed by a summary of the subunits involved in the electron transport chain, and
the transcription of the electron transport chain subunits.
We will also talk about the
peroxisomes proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activators,
which we will refer to as PGC-1s,
nuclear respiratory factors, NRFs,
and estrogen-related receptors or ESRRs.
We'll also talk about the mitochondrial transcription factors,
which are also nuclear-encoded,
and we'll talk briefly about the Yin-Yang 1 transcription factor.
Just a reminder, the mitochondria are the powerhouse of the cell;
they convert dietary inputs into ATP.
They are the location where the Krebs/Citric Acid Cycle occur.
They're also the place where the process of oxidative phosphorylation occurs to produce ATP,
using the complexes on the electron transport chain.
There are five complexes that make up the electron transport chain,
and these complexes are encoded by both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes.
The mitochondrial genome encodes for seven components of Complex I,
one of Complex III,
three of Complex IV,
and two of Complex V;
whilst the nuclear genome encodes for 39 subunits of Complex I,
10 of Complex III,
4 of Complex II,
10 of Complex IV,
and 14 of Complex V. This requires coordinated expression of