Human mitochondrial tRNAs: post-transcriptional modifications and diseases

Published on May 31, 2018   36 min
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Hello. I'm Tsutomu Suzuki from Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology in University of Tokyo. I'm going to give a talk on human mitochondrial tRNAs, especially focusing on functional role of post-transcriptional modifications and human diseases caused by aberrant tRNA modifications.
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This is an outline of my lecture. I want to start with general backgrounds of mitochondrial decoding system and the protein synthesis. Next, I want to talk about characteristic features of post-transcriptional modifications of mitochondrial tRNAs. Then, I want to give you two stories of mitochondrial specific tRNA modifications, taurine modification, and 5-formylcytidine.
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Mitochondria are organisms found in most eukaryotic cells. They make up one-fifths of the cell volume. Mitochondria are sometimes described as cellular power plants because they generate most of the cellular energy in a process referred to as oxidative phosphorylation, which converts dietary calories into usable energy in the form of ATP. Each cell contains thousands of copies of the mitochondrial DNA. Mitochondrial DNA is believed to reflect the endosymbiotic event when the ancestral eukaryotic cells to clean aerobic bacteria, in particular. They can't share or across relatives. In the array (processing), it was in a stage of eukaryotes. Human mitochondrial DNA is a closed circular double-stranded DNA with 16,569 base pairs and coding 37 genes: 13 genes for the essential subunits of respiratory chain complexes, 22 for tRNAs, and two for ribosomal RNAs.
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Human mitochondrial tRNAs: post-transcriptional modifications and diseases

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