My name is Moin Saleem,
I'm the Professor
of Paediatric Renal Medicine
at the University of Bristol
in the UK
and the Children's Renal Unit.
I'm gonna talk today about focal
So first to put this into context;
this is about the kidney's filter.
The kidney, I call the world's
most sophisticated filter.
And the filtration unit
of the kidney is the glomerulus.
is a specialized capillary bed.
And we have about a million
to two million of these each.
And when the glomerulus breaks down
and the filtration breaks down,
we get what is called,
the idiopathic nephrotic syndrome.
And this results
in heavy proteinuria,
so protein leaks from
the bloodstream into the urine,
low-levels of protein
in the blood particularly happens.
And so you get hypoalbuminaemia
which leads to
low osmotic pressures
in the inter-vascular space.
And which leads to
peripheral tissue oedema,
which you can see here.
Rugby player Jonah Lomu,
is a very famous patient with
nephrotic syndrome, who sadly died.