Pathophysiology of acute renal failure

Published on February 29, 2024   24 min

Other Talks in the Series: The Kidney in Health and Disease

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Hello everyone. My name is Viviane Calice-Silva. I'm a Nephrologist and an Associate Professor from the School of Medicine at Univille and Pro-rim Foundation, Joinville, Brazil. It's a great pleasure to be here and speak with you today about the pathophysiology of acute renal failure.
What we are going to discuss today is about AKI definition, AKI epidemiology worldwide, and its pathophysiology.
AKI is a global problem and occurs in many different settings in the community, hospitals, also reported in the ICU's. It's a predictor of immediate and long-term adverse outcomes. It's more prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease and may act as a promoter of progression of an underlying CKD. The burden of AKI is most significant in developing countries, mainly due to limited resources of care and sometimes the lack of renal replacement therapy. It's very important for us to improve AKI detection, especially in its early and potentially reversible stages. This is key to prevent the risk of progression for kidney failure requiring dialysis.
It's very important to understand the AKI definition. It is defined as a rapid increase in serum creatinine, decrease in urine output, or both. As per KDIGO, we have a specific definition as follows. An increase in serum creatinine by 0.3 milligrams per deciliter within 48 hours or an increase in serum creatinine by 1.5 times the baseline, which is known or presumed to have occurred within the prior seven days, or if we have a decrease in the urine volume by 0.5 ml per kilo per hour during 6 hours, you have the diagnosis of AKI. AKI is a part of a variety of