Consanguinity and genomic sharing in human evolutionary inference

Published on March 18, 2015   51 min

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Other Talks in the Series: Human Population Genetics II

Hello, I'm Trevor Pemberton, a Professor of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics at the University of Manitoba. Today I'm going to talk about the influence of cultural and population processes on patterns of identity by descenting human populations and their importance in understanding human evolutionary history and phenotypic variation.
I will start by defining what identity by descent is and the population and cultural processes that give rise to it. Next, I will introduce the inbreeding coefficient as a measure of identity by descent levels in individual genomes, the pedigree and genomic estimators used to calculate it, and give an overview of its patterns in worldwide human populations, and how these reflect their different cultures and histories. Then I will introduce runs of homozygosity as an approach to detect identity by descent regions in individual genomes, and how inbreeding coefficient estimates based upon this approach correlate with those obtained with the genomic estimator. Finally, I'll review some recent findings on genomic patterns in runs of homozygosity in worldwide human populations, their utility for understanding human evolutionary history, and briefly outline their importance in human phenotypic variation.
For a pair of individuals a genomic region is said to be identical by state if they have an identical nucleotide sequence in that region. An identical by state region is identical by descent if both individuals have inherited it from a common ancestor, that is the region has the same ancestral origin in these individuals. Genomic regions that are identical by descent are identical by state by definition. but regions that are not identical by descent can still be identical by state due to the same mutations arising in different individuals, or a combination of events that change the ancestral origin of the segment without altering its sequence.

Consanguinity and genomic sharing in human evolutionary inference

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