Patterns of genetic variation and admixture in Latin America

Published on March 18, 2015   40 min

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Other Talks in the Series: Human Population Genetics II

Hi. Welcome to the Henry Stewart talks on population genetics. Today, we're going to talk about patterns of genetic variation and admixture in Latin America. My name is Andres Moreno-Estrada. And I'm a research associate in the Bustamante Lab at Stanford Center for Computational, Evolutionary, and Human Genomics.
In the first slide, you will see an outline of the subject that we'll be covering today. After an introduction, I will talk about patterns of genetic diversity in Mexico, and then the Caribbean region, and finally a little bit about South American population structure.
To start, I would like to refer to this milestone that everybody is familiar with. The sequencing of the human genome took place almost 50 years ago now, and after that, a huge amount of research has been going on in genomics in general. And in our case, as in many other fields within genomics, I think this has been one of the greatest motivations to start studying the diversity of the human genome. So this is, of course, the reference genome. But after that, many, many other genomes have been sequenced, human and non-human, for example.
If we see a curve of the sequencing costs that have been occurring in the past 15 years, we see a dramatic drop, as discussed, as the technologies have advanced. After the introduction of the next-generation sequencing platform around 2008, we see a clear drop in sequencing costs, which has allowed the volume of data being generated by these patterns to increase more and more.
So for example, one of the most popular platforms for sequencing is the so-called high throughput sequencing platform machines. As we can see in this diagram, we start from DNA extracted from cells. And then we put them in flow cells, which basically sequence in parallel thousands and millions of reads that then gets inputted into the machine. And then we can read out the data. It's not all about sequencing. Actually, the fact of sequencing new genomes allows us to detect variance that are actually the positions that we care about. And finally, also, some other technologies have been developed to only analyze that set of positions of the genome, which is a case of the technology

Patterns of genetic variation and admixture in Latin America

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