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Interviewer: Hello, Dr. Dalal,
thank you very much for doing
this update interview with us today.
Where we are going to discuss the changes
in the field of dynamic signaling encoding
in the Saccharomyces
cerevisiae calcium response.
We are also going to cover
the implications of this new knowledge and
where you see the fields headed.
So to start, what do we now know
on this topic that we did not
know at the time of
recording your talk in 2013?
Dr. Dalal: I think the major thing that
we know now that we didn't know then is
that, what happens in calcium signaling
is not limited to just calcium signaling.
What I mean by that is that at the time,
the transcriptional regulator CRZ 1 or
"crazy one" which is responsible for
calcium signaling was shown to have
these pulses of nuclear localization.
And since then we've now, there's been in
the field identified at least ten other
transcription factors that also pulse.
And moreover, all of them have also
been characterized in some depth.
So now we know that this is not just
isolated to calcium signaling, but
that this sort of signal encoding
occurs all across the yeast genome.
And more importantly than that,
we also know that orthologs of
the CRZ 1 transcriptional regulator,
notably NF-AT in mammalian cells also
show this sort of pulsatile behavior.
And so this sort of dynamic single
cell analysis has really enabled us
to see how different ways that biological
systems can regulate themselves.
And it's just, it's not specific to
calcium that just happened to be
the place where we made
the identification first.
Interviewer: And so
what are the implications of this?
Dr. Dalal: I think the implications
are that we thought that this,
when we first discovered the crazy,
the CRZ 1 system,
we were really intrigued by the fact that
we see this frequency modulated behavior.