Type 2 diabetes

Published on June 11, 2013   52 min

A selection of talks on Clinical Practice

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My name is Dr. Ed Boyko, and I'll be talking today on the subject of Type 2 diabetes. I'm a professor at the University of Washington School of Medicine in Seattle, Washington USA.
I'll cover a number of aspects of Type 2 diabetes, as shown in this outline slide. I'll mainly focus on the epidemiology and pathophysiology of Type 2 diabetes. I'll talk about ethnic differences in diabetes risk, and also with regard to body composition, a risk factor for diabetes, and I'll talk about efforts at prevention of Type 2 diabetes. And I will not be talking about the prevention of Type 1 diabetes. I also will not be covering the treatment of Types 1 or 2 diabetes, or diabetic complications.
There are multiple diabetes types. Type 1 diabetes is mainly characterized by a deficiency in the production of insulin. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by impaired action of insulin and relatively deficient insulin secretion. Type 1.5 diabetes shares characteristics of both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. There are immune markers present and also characteristic impaired action of insulin. Secondary diabetes is due to other causes, such as chronic pancreatitis from alcohol or other reasons, which results in impaired insulin secretion, or because of the administration of a medication such as prednisone or another corticosteroid, which results in impaired action of insulin because of increased resistance to its action, MODY, or Maturity Onset Diabetes of Youth is a hereditary form of diabetes due to a mutation in autosomal dominant genes. The mutation results in defects in insulin secretion or release. It's referred to as monogenic diabetes to distinguish it from Types 1 and 2 diabetes, which are polygenic, and also of environmental origin. Type 2 diabetes has become much more frequent in prevalence over the past 30 years. The epidemiology of Type 2 diabetes is shown on the next slide.