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Ecological considerations for gene drive systems
Published on April 30, 2018 35 min
Other Talks in the Series: Gene-Drives and Active Genetics
Suppressing mosquito disease vectors via manipulating fertility, sex and male-courtship drive
- Prof. Craig Montell
- University of California, Santa Barbara, USA
CRISPR editing therapy for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy 2
- Prof. Dongsheng Duan
- University of Missouri, USA
Gene-drives and active genetics: introduction to gene-drives and their implications for health and society
- Prof. Ethan Bier
- University of California, San Diego, USA
Hello, my name is Gregory Lanzaro. I'm a professor in the department of pathology and microbiology and immunology in the School of Veterinary Medicine at the University of California, Davis. My background is in insect population genetics, and I'll be discussing ecological considerations for the application of Gene Drive technology using as an example, its proposed application toward the elimination of Malaria in Africa. This example is one of the earliest proposed applications of Gene Drive. First laid out in a contemporary sense by Dr. Austin Burt back in 2003.
Human Malaria is a blood disease caused by protozoan parasites in the genus Plasmodium and transmitted by the bite of Anopheles mosquitoes. In the left panel of the slide, is an illustration of Anopheles gambiae, one of the principal Malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa. In the right panel, is an illustration of the human stage of the Malaria parasite lifecycle. After injection via the bite of an infected mosquito, the parasite establishes a non-symptomatic infection in the liver. Following several cycles of replication, parasites are introduced into the circulating bloodstream where they infect and destroy red blood cells resulting in disease. Malaria is distributed across the world as illustrated on the map.
Malaria ranks in terms of morbidity and mortality, among the most important infectious diseases of man. Fifty percent of the world's population is at risk of infection. There are 200 to 300 million cases annually, resulting in roughly half a million deaths. Eighty-five percent of these in sub-Saharan Africa mostly in children under five and pregnant women.