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Good day, everyone.My name is YY Teo.I'm currently
at the National University of Singapore.And I'm the center directorfor the Center for Infectious Diseases
Epidemiology Research.Today, we're going to talk about
"Statistical Genetics of Infectious Diseases".
Now, there has been quite a lot of progress
in genomics over the past 15 years.So in 2001, we started with the sequencing
of the first draft of the human genome.And we did a spectrum
of about 10 years or decade.We have now moved from
just sequencing one human,to sequencing thousands of humans
and also not just the humans,but also the organisms, the pathogensthat are inside and on the surface
of the skins of humans.Now given this rapid progress,there has been a lot of opportunities
and challengesfor the use of genomics
to look at a spectrum of diseases.
So, if we look at the developments
that have happenedfrom the period of 2005 to 2015,
in these 10 years,we have moved from a casewhere we knew very little
about the genetics or complex traitsand common diseases, to knowingin excess of 4,000 specific positions
in the human genomethat have been found to be associated
with the severity of a conditionor with the onset of a particular condition.
Now when we think about infectious diseases,there has been similarly a lot of discoveries
that have been made.So for example,
there have been identificationsof particular genetic polymorphisms
that protect or are associatedwith malaria in the West Africa,
in the Gambia as well as in Ghana,which uses data from the Gambia
as an add-onto improve the statistical power to identify
the loci for severe malaria in Ghana.Now, this was similarly the case in denguewhere again using
a genome-wide association design,that we have been identifying
genetic polymorphismsthat confers higher risk,
or conversely a protection effectagainst dengue as well as
enteric fever and tuberculosis.