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Lysosome: much more than a degradative organelle
Published on October 31, 2018 17 min
Other Talks in the Series: Autophagy and Lysosomal Storage Diseases
My name is Diego Louis Medina, Assistant Investigator at the Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine at Pozzuoli, Italy. The title of my presentation today is, Lysosome: Much More Than a Degradative Organelle.
The lysosome has been considered for many years as the cells trash can. An organelle involved in catabolic pathways and not subject to any particular regulation.
Thus the lysosome is able to degrade a variety of macromolecules coming from major intracellular pathways, through autophagy and endocytosis. In addition the lysosome can insert a very specialized function called lysosomal exocytosis: a calcium-dependent process involved in the expelling of lysosomal content outside of the cell.
The lysosome is a single enclosed organelle that contains a set of hydrolases, that work in the acidic environment of the lysosomal lumen, and are responsible for the catabolic function of this organelle. The lysosome membrane is rich with highly glycosylated proteins, such as the LAMP proteins that protect the lysosome and the cell from cell aging. In addition the lysosomal membrane contains other components, such as the vesicular proton pump, that generates the acidic environment of the lysosome; ionic channels that keep ionic homeostasis; different transporters of lipids, like MPC proteins or amino acids like LAAT1; and other transporters for the recycling of the catabolism of macromolecules; as well as proteins involved in trafficking and fusion of membranes, like RABs and SNARE proteins.