DR. HELDER A. SANTOS:
Hello, my name is Helder Santos
and I'm an adjunct
professor at the division
chemistry and technology
in the faculty of pharmacy at the
University of Helsinki, Finland.
And today I'm going to tell
you about the fabrication
of nanomedicines for precisely
controlled combination therapy.
And here's the overview of my talk.
I will start to introduce
nanotechnology and nanomedicines.
Then I will go through the drug
delivery and drug delivery systems.
I will also discuss porous silicon
as a biomaterial and its
applications in drug delivery.
And then biomedical applications
as well as microfluidics
and their biomedical applications.
And then I will conclude with
some summary and main conclusions
about this presentation.
Here I show the process
of drug development.
It's usually a long process that
can last up to 15 years or more.
It's divided in different steps.
In the first step of drug research,
10,000 compounds are tested.
In the preclinical lab and
animal experiments are carried on
with less than 250 compounds.
In the clinical trials, less
than five compounds are tested.
This is divided into three phases.
In phase I, 20 to 100
healthy volunteers are tested.
In phase II, 100 to 500 patients
are tested for safety and dosing.
And in phase III, 1,000
to 10,000 patients are tested
for efficacy and adverse events.
Then the evaluation and approval
will last two more years at least.
And the phase IV studies, two
more years are needed for this.
And they will end up with one drug
approval by health authorities,
And the overall costs
of this research
is more than one billion euro.