What is the marketing mix?

Published on May 31, 2023   10 min
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Hello, and welcome to this session on the marketing mix. My name is Annmarie Hanlon, and I teach marketing at Cranfield University's School of Management in the UK. Some of these themes are taken from my book, 'Digital Marketing. Let's get started.
In this session, we look at how the marketing mix was formed, we'll explore how this evolved from the 4Ps to the 7Ps. Then we'll unpack the different elements of the marketing mix, and how they are used in marketing planning.
The marketing mix was initially proposed by James Culliton in 1948 when conducting a costing exercise to better understand manufacturers' marketing costs. Culliton discussed how marketing executives had to mix the ingredients available to them in order to manage the costs and gain results. The phrase 'mixing' was picked up and used by Neil Borden in 1964, and included many elements or ingredients. The purpose of having the list of ingredients was about cost planning, so that no elements were missing from a marketing activity. This started with product planning and pricing, with branding and market channel decisions for distributing the product. Personal selling, advertising, and other methods of promotion were added along with costs of packaging and display. Borden and also included servicing, which as large machinery was the product, would need regular attention. Physical handling was included, which we would describe as logistics, warehousing, transport, and delivery. Finally, research in the form of fact-finding and analysis was part of the original marketing mix. This wasn't easy to remember, and the proportion of the different elements varied according to the type of company and the products being sold. E.g,. machine manufacturers who may have several large customers, may require greater amounts of personal selling, whereas companies selling cosmetics to hundreds of thousands of customers may use more advertising.