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Non-traditional cyber adversaries: Combatting human trafficking through data science
Human trafficking is a complex and challenging global crime exacerbated by the use of technology. This paper begins by dicussing how traffickers utilise technology for scalability, anonymity and profitability as the Internet, social media platforms and encrypted messaging make the recruitment, exploitation and profit of an individual a low-risk, high-reward enterprise. It goes on to describe how counter-trafficking efforts are often siloed approaches, resulting in decentralised information and analysis on the size and scope of trafficking in persons. It presents resources and tools such as the human trafficking kill chain methodology and Artemis, a machine learning (ML) human trafficking risk classifier, show promising disruption tactics which may also be applied to other asymmetrical threats. Recommendations for centralised data collections methods, interagency collaboration and cybersecurity adjacent legislation are also made.
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Danielle Borrelli is the Operations Coordinator at the California Cybersecurity Institute (CCI) and the Program Lead for the Trafficking Investigations Hub (TIH). She oversees the implementation of all CCI events, training courses and projects, as well as develops and delivers training and technical resources that address the role of technology in recruiting and exploiting victims of human trafficking. In addition, Danielle is a local, regional and international anti-human trafficking advocate with nine years’ experience in prevention, intervention and restoration work. Previously serving on the San Luis Obispo (SLO) County’s District Attorney’s Human Trafficking Task Force as their Housing Subcommittee Chair, Danielle has helped start and consulted on the development and sustainability of four separate housing programmes. Danielle also works with schools and businesses to provide training in human trafficking awareness. In addition, she provides mentoring to survivors of trafficking, and counselling to victims of sexual assault and domestic violence. Danielle was recently named California Polytechnic State University’s Employee of the Year for 2018–19, SLO Tribune’s Top 20 under 40 for 2019 and Jordan Cunningham’s 35th District Woman of the Year.
Sherrie Caltagirone is the founder and executive director of Global Emancipation Network (GEN), the leading data analytics and intelligence non-profit dedicated to countering human trafficking. Prior to starting GEN, Sherrie served as a policy adviser for Orphan Secure, a global human trafficking rescue non-profit, and began her anti-trafficking career with The Protection Project at the Johns Hopkins University. Sherrie served as a distinguished research scholar at North Carolina State University and is driven by research on the use of data analytics and mathematical models to combat trafficking, measuring criminal economies and polycriminality. She is the author of several international legal policies and guidelines on trafficking and has collaborated with the United Nations, League of Arab States, Council of Europe, Interpol and several governmental agencies to end modern-day slavery. Sherrie enjoys travelling and reads voraciously to feed a passion for creating new solutions to end human trafficking. She received her degree in international relations summa cum laude from American University.