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Talk: Mitochondrial DNA Replication and Transcription (23 min)

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DETAILED SLIDE INDEX

  1. 1. Introduction
  2. 2. mtDNA genetic system
  3. 3. Human mitochondrial DNA
  4. 4. Genetic map of the mammalian mtDNA
  5. 5. Mitochondrial genetics
  6. 6. mtDNA replication
  7. 7. The classic model of mtDNA replication
  8. 8. The mtDNA strand displacement replication model
  9. 9. Initiation of replication at OH
  10. 10. Initiation of replication at OL
  11. 11. Proteins involved in mitochondrial DNA replication
  12. 12. mtDNA replication: strand-coupled model
  13. 13. mtDNA transcription
  14. 14. Oligo (dT)-cellulose-bound RNA (poly(A)-RNA)
  15. 15. Genetic and transcription map of human mtDNA
  16. 16. Genetic/ transcription map of mammalian mtDNA
  17. 17. Enzymatic activities in RNA processing
  18. 18. Proteins involved in mtDNA transcription (1)
  19. 19. Thyroid hormones regulation of mtDNA expression
  20. 20. Thyroid hormones effect on mtDNA transcription
  21. 21. mtRNA synthesis in isolated rat liver mitochondria
  22. 22. Effect of thyroid hormone on RNA synthesis
  23. 23. Methylation interference sites
  24. 24. The double transcription effect of thyroid hormone
  25. 25. Regulation of the mammalian mtDNA expression
  26. 26. Proteins involved in mtDNA transcription (2)
  27. 27. Regulation by mTERF phosphorylation
  28. 28. Transcription map of human mtDNA and mTERF
  29. 29. A mitocondrial transcription initiation regulator?
  30. 30. mTERF may be involved in the recognition of H1
  31. 31. mtDNA replication and transcription
  32. 32. END

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TALK'S CITATION

Montoya, J. (2007), "Mitochondrial DNA Replication and Transcription", in Hood, D. (ed.), Mitochondrial Biogenesis: Processes, Regulation, Functions and Disease, The Biomedical & Life Sciences Collection, Henry Stewart Talks Ltd, London (online at http://hstalks.com/?t=BL0151469)

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ABOUT THIS TALK

Speaker(s)

Prof. Julio Montoya Show Biography

SPEAKER BIOGRAPHY

Prof. Julio Montoya – Zaragoza University, Spain

Julio Montoya is Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at Zaragoza University, Spain. He obtained his PhD in biochemistry from the Complutense University of Madrid. He worked at the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA for five years with Giuseppe Attardi, where he carried out a detailed analysis of human mitochondrial RNAs, proposing a model for the transcription of mtDNA and RNA processing. At present he is studying the mechanisms of regulation of mtDNA expression and genetics of human mitochondrial diseases, identifying new mutations and analyzing the mechanism of pathogenicity.

Publication Date

October, 2007

Topics Covered

Introduction to the mitochondrial genetic system... more

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Introduction to the mitochondrial genetic system
  • Features of mammalian mitochondrial DNA
  • Characteristics of mitochondrial genetics
  • Mitochondrial DNA replication: strand-displacement and strand-coupled models
  • Proteins involved in mitochondrial DNA replication
  • Mitochondrial DNA transcription
  • Isolation and mapping of mitochondrial RNA
  • Model of transcription and RNA processing
  • Regulation of mtDNA expression by thyroid hormones
  • Regulation of the mammalian mtDNA expression by mTERF phosphorylation

Series

Mitochondrial Biogenesis

OTHER TALKS IN THIS SERIES

CELLULAR MECHANISMS OF MITOCHONDRIAL BIOGENESIS IN HEALTH
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TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

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TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

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TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

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6. Mitochondrial DNA Replication and Transcription
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TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

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Dr. Tony Collins

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Levels of mitochondrial heterogeneity
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  • Live cell mitochondrial 3D reconstruction
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10. Evolutionary and Developmental Variation in Muscle Mitochondrial Content More info
Prof. Christopher Moyes

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

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TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

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  • Mitochondrial biogenesis in spermatogenesis
  • Mitochondrial biogenesis in oogenesis
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TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

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TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

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TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Mitochondrial functions
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  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)
  • Mitochondrial genetics
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  • Diseases due to mutations in mtDNA
  • mtDNA mutations impairing mitochondrial protein synthesis
  • mtDNA mutations in specific protein-coding genes
  • Diseases due to mutations in nuclear DNA (nDNA)
  • Mutations in nuclear genes encoding subunits of respiratory chain complexes
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Play '15. Mitochondrial Myopathies: Exercise and Nutrition'
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Dr. Mark Tarnopolsky

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Mitochondrial biology
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  • Clinical features and causes of fatigue with mitochondrial impairment
  • Mitochondrial diagnosis
  • Consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction at the cellular and whole body level
  • Theory for mitochondrial disease treatment strategies
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Prof. Anthony Schapira

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Spectrum of mitochondrial diseases
  • Mitochondrial metabolic pathway
  • MtDNA mutations and disease
  • Pathological features
  • MELAS
  • Genetic epidemiology of mtDNA mutations
  • Structural components of respiratory chain complexes
  • Mitochondrial DNA metabolism
  • Mitochondrial proteins and oxidative phosphorylation
  • Fatal mtDNA depletion syndrome
  • POLG mutations
  • Environmental influences on PD causation
  • PARK genes
  • Huntington's disease and mtDNA mutations
  • Genetic basis of Friedreich's ataxia
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17. The Biogenesis of Mitochondria in Cancer More info
Prof. Jose Cuezva

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Mitochondria in cancer biology: energetic metabolism of the cancer cell
  • Otto Warburg and the Pasteur Effect
  • The bioenergetic signature of human cancers
  • Applicability of the bioenergetic signature in the clinics: colon, lung and breast cancer
  • Molecular and functional integration of bioenergetics and cell death
  • The role of the H+-ATP synthase in ROS-signaling the execution of cell death
  • Energetic metabolism and cellular proliferation
  • Repression of mitochondrial biogenesis in the developing liver and in the cancer cell
  • Translation masking of an essential OXPHOS mRNA: the bioenergetic paradox of development and oncogenesis
  • Cis- and trans-acting factors involved in the subcellular localization and translation of beta-F1-ATPase mRNA
Play '18. Possible Roles of Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Aging'
18. Possible Roles of Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Aging More info
Dr. Aubrey de Grey

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Oxidative phosphorylation
  • The mitochondrial DNA
  • Aging as the accumulation of damage
  • Types of aging damage
  • Types of damaged cells
  • Survival of cells lacking oxidative phosphorylation
  • The plasma membrane redox system
  • Reductive hotspot hypothesis
  • "Survival of the slowest" hypothesis
  • Allotopic expression
  • Hydrophobicity prevents allotopic expression of mitochondrially-encoded proteins
  • Ways to make these proteins allotopically expressible
Play '19. Muscle Mitochondrial Function and Biogenesis with Aging'
19. Muscle Mitochondrial Function and Biogenesis with Aging More info
Dr. Russell Hepple

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Role of mitochondria in muscle performance
  • Changes in skeletal muscle contractile function with aging
  • Effect of aging on mitochondrial oxidative capacity and its consequences
  • Mitochondrial dysfunction in aged muscle
  • Mechanisms contributing to mitochondrial dysfunction in aged muscles
MITOCHONDRIA, CELL SIGNALING AND APOPTOSIS
Play '20. Calcium Signaling and Mitochondrial Function'
20. Calcium Signaling and Mitochondrial Function More info
Prof. David Nicholls

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • The calcium uniporter
  • Mitochondrial calcium efflux pathways
  • Steady state and net uptake
  • The regulation of cytoplasmic calcium by mitochondria
  • The role of phosphate and the matrix calcium phosphate complex
  • Uniporter kinetics
  • The set-point concept
  • Matrix dehydrogenase regulation by calcium
  • The permeability transition
Play '21. Mitochondrial Permeability Transition'
21. Mitochondrial Permeability Transition More info
Prof. John Lemasters

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Factors regulating opening of permeability transition pores
  • Models of permeability transition pore composition
  • Discrepancies of consensus model
  • Protein misfolding and the MPT
  • Rieske iron sulfur protein
  • Reye's syndrome
  • Ischemia/reperfusion and oxidative stress
  • Apoptosis
  • Mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy)
  • Necrapoptosis
Play '22. Reactive Oxygen Species and Myocardial Apoptosis'
22. Reactive Oxygen Species and Myocardial Apoptosis More info
Dr. Zhi-Qing Zhao

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Reactive oxygen species
  • Ischemia/reperfusion
  • Necrosis
  • Apoptosis
  • Infarct size
  • Mitochondrial calcium overload
  • Mitochondrial dysfunction
  • Cytochrome c release from mitochondria
  • MAPK kinases
  • NFkappaB
  • TNFalpha
  • IL6
  • Caspases
  • Antioxidant
  • Postconditioning
Play '23. The Mitochondrial Pathway in Apoptosis'
23. The Mitochondrial Pathway in Apoptosis More info
Prof. Douglas Green

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Apoptosis and programmed cell death
  • Apoptosis occurrence and induction
  • Role of caspase proteases in apoptosis
  • Apoptotic pathways in mammals
  • Mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis
  • The Bcl-2 family proteins
  • Mitochondrial permeability transition
  • Bax/Bak "pore"
  • Mitochondrial fission and outer membrane permeabilization
  • Caspase-independent cell death
Play '24. Pathways of Apoptosis in Muscle'
24. Pathways of Apoptosis in Muscle More info
Prof. Stephen Alway

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Introduction and importance of nuclear apoptosis in skeletal muscle
  • Loading and nuclear apoptosis of myonuclei and satellite cells
  • Apoptosis in muscle with unloading and denervation
  • Mitochondrial-induced caspase-dependent signaling
  • Id2 signaling and mitochondrial-associated apoptosis
  • Cross-talk between intrinsic and extrinsic signaling for apoptosis
  • Bax, a key player in mitochondrial-associated apoptotic signaling
  • Mitochondrial associated caspase independent signaling
  • Exercise as a tool to decrease pro-apoptotic signaling proteins

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