Henry Stewart Talks

The Biomedical & Life Sciences Collection

Online Seminars By Leading World Experts

Series: Medical Imaging

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Imaging Techniques for Pre-clinical and Clinical Applications


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Over the past few decades, medical imaging has played an important role in the diagnosis, staging, assessment and treatment of human disease. While the primary applications for such techniques have been clinically directed, imaging is increasingly finding a role in pre-clinical research and drug discovery and development. Thus, imaging has become an essential component in many aspects of translational research, from evaluating the efficacy of biomarkers applied to pre-clinical models of disease through to the patients who will benefit from the development of targeted therapies. The potential of imaging to accelerate drug discovery and provide a cost-effective means of assessing efficacy is unparalleled and to a large extent underutilized.

Since the discovery of x-rays by Wilhelm Roentgen in 1895, non-invasive medical imaging techniques have primarily been based on ionizing radiation that can penetrate the human body. Exceptions are ultrasound (US) and Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging, and for certain applications optical techniques involving visible light. Primary medical imaging approaches that involve ionizing radiation include Computed Tomography (CT), Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Recently, multimodality or hybrid instrumentation has become available that can image two (or more) modalities in a single device. These include PET/CT, SPECT/CT and MR/PET.

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Basic Techniques
Play '1. Basics of Computed Tomography (CT) (59 mins)'
1. Basics of Computed Tomography (CT) (59 mins) More info
Prof. Marc Kachelrieß  –  German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) Heidelberg, Germany


  • Technical basics of clinical X-ray CT
  • From single-slice to multi slice
  • The CT hardware
  • Mechanics
  • X-ray source and X-ray detector technology
  • Image reconstruction of circular, sequential and spiral CT
  • Specific applications
  • Dose reduction strategies
Play '2. Basics of nuclear medicine imaging (52 mins)'
2. Basics of nuclear medicine imaging (52 mins) More info
Prof. Dale Bailey  –  University of Sydney, Australia


  • Basics of nuclear physics used in nuclear medicine, imaging and therapy
  • Devices used including gamma camera, SPECT and PET imaging
  • Multimodality imaging devices (SPECT/CT, PET/CT)
  • Radiation dosimetry for nuclear medicine
Play '3. Principles of SPECT (33 mins)'
3. Principles of SPECT (33 mins) More info
Prof. Larry Zeng  –  University of Utah, USA


  • SPECT is functional imaging
  • Emission tomography
  • Basics of nuclear physics
  • SPECT instrumentation
  • SPECT imaging
  • SPECT image reconstruction
Play '4. Fundamental principles of positron emission tomography (PET) - part 1 (56 mins)'
4. Fundamental principles of positron emission tomography (PET) - part 1 (56 mins) More info
Dr. Osama Mawlawi  –  MD Anderson Cancer Center, USA


  • Principles of PET imaging
  • The PET process
  • Positron decay
  • Nuclide production
  • Decay schemes of 18-F
  • Image reconstruction
  • Different views when using PET scanners
  • The process of image formation in details
  • Annihilation - Detector/photomultiplier design
  • Energy trigger, measurement and qualification
  • Event positioning
  • Coincidence assessment of singles events
  • Steps involved in coincidence assessment
  • Coincidence acceptance angles (Transverse & Axial)
  • Coincidence timing comparison
  • Overall LOR determination process
  • LOR data storage
  • Sample sinograms
  • Detector assembly
  • Direct and cross planes
  • Axial sampling and slice sensitivity
  • Michelograms
  • Further improvement in sensitivity
  • 2D and 3D
  • Inter-plane septa
  • Type of recorded events
  • Two ways of measuring randoms in PET
  • Randoms estimation
  • Scatter and its extent in PET images
  • KCPS vs. activity concentration
  • Scatter correction
  • Power of PET by quantification
  • Normalization
  • Dead-time
  • Decay correction - Geometric correction
  • Attenuation measurement
  • Calculated attenuation correction
  • Segmented attenuation correction
  • Effect of attenuation correction on PET image
  • CT based attenuation correction
  • Calibration
  • Factors affecting image resolution
  • Detector size
  • Depth of interaction
  • Resolution improvement
  • Positron range
  • Non co-linearity
  • Linear and angular sampling
  • Image matrix
  • Reconstruction filter
Play '5. Fundamental principles of positron emission tomography (PET) - part 2 (31 mins)'
5. Fundamental principles of positron emission tomography (PET) - part 2 (31 mins) More info
Dr. Osama Mawlawi  –  MD Anderson Cancer Center, USA


  • Aspects of PET imaging
  • Image reconstruction
  • Filtered Back Projection
  • Iterative reconstruction
  • Reconstruction comparison
  • Factors affecting scanner sensitivity
  • 2D and 3D
  • Increase in sensitivity in 3D over 2D
  • Disadvantages of 3D imaging: loss of contrast & image quality
  • Improved sensitivity
  • Quantitative PET performance
  • Phantom study
  • Motion effects
  • Partial volume effect
  • PET data acquisition schemes
  • Static & dynamic modes
  • Gated PET
  • Time of flight (TOF) acquisition
  • Hybrid scanner: PET/CT imaging
  • Rationale of PET/CT
  • Types of artifacts
  • Current PET/CT scanner status
  • Different types of PET/CT scanners
  • Radiation exposure
  • Available dosimetry tools
  • PET applications
  • Scanning Melanoma, Lymphoma and Brain Astrocytoma
  • Imaging in Neurology: Parkinson's disease
  • Receptor binding
  • Imaging in Cardiology
Play '6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (23 mins)'
6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (23 mins) More info
Dr. Sendhil Velan  –  Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, Singapore


  • History of magnetic resonance
  • Magnetic resonance scanners
  • Nuclei in a magnetic field -Excitation
  • Chemical shifts
  • T1 relaxation
  • T2 relaxation
  • Spin echo
  • Gradient echo and its imaging sequence
  • Slice selection/thickness
  • Phase and frequency encoding of the MR signal
  • Spatial resolution
  • K space
  • Image contrast and noise
  • T1 contrast: TR and flip angle
  • T2 contrast
  • Signal to noise and contrast to noise in MRI
  • Localized spectroscopy
  • Volume localized MRS sequence
  • Volume localization using PRESS
  • Brain MRS
  • Spectroscopic imaging
Play '7. Optical imaging in biomedicine (30 mins)'
7. Optical imaging in biomedicine (30 mins) More info
Prof. Malini Olivo  –  National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland


  • What is biophotonics?
  • The need for biophotonics in medicine
  • Photomedicine in cancer
  • In vivo optical imaging in cancer detection
  • Endoscopic optical biopsy
  • Real-time clinical fluorescence diagnostic system
  • Image analysis algorithm
  • Diagnostic accuracy of bladder and oral cancer detection using fluorescence
  • Macroscopic fluorescence analysis in the oral cavity and cervix
  • Ex-vivo optical methods
  • Autofluorescence lifetime studies
  • Towards a 3D fluorescence in vivo cellular diagnostic system
  • Optical coherence tomography (OCT)
  • OCT vs. confocal imaging
  • Nano-oncology
  • Nano-based imaging
  • Nano-drug delivery systems

Cross-Modality and Clinical Applications
Play '8. Dual-modality imaging with combined scanners part 1 (47 mins)'
8. Dual-modality imaging with combined scanners part 1 (47 mins) More info
Dr. Thomas Beyer  –  cmi-experts GmbH, Switzerland


  • Imaging and diagnosis
  • Combined imaging and software fusion
  • Early SPECT/CT development
  • PET/MR developments
  • PET/MR developments
  • Clinical dual-modality imaging
  • Advancing SPECT/CT
  • Advances in SPECT/CT technology
Play '9. Dual-modality imaging with combined scanners part 2 (50 mins)'
9. Dual-modality imaging with combined scanners part 2 (50 mins) More info
Dr. Thomas Beyer  –  cmi-experts GmbH, Switzerland


  • Advances in PET(/CT) technology
  • Time-of-flight PET
  • Novel PET/CT system designs
  • Advances in CT technology
  • Patient and staff exposure
  • Imaging guidelines: PET/CT and SPECT/CT
  • PET/MR or PET/CT?
  • PET/MR design considerations
  • Pre-clinical imaging using dual-modality scanners
Play '10. Clinical indications for SPECT/CT (42 mins)'
10. Clinical indications for SPECT/CT (42 mins) More info
Prof. Ora Israel  –  Rambam Health Care Campus and Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Israel


  • History of SPECT/CT
  • Pitfalls and sources of errors in SPECT/CT imaging
  • Referral criteria to SPECT/CT
  • Clinical SPECT/CT devices
  • Clinical indications for SPECT/CT: endocrine disease
  • Neuroendocrine tumors, thyroid cancer, parathyroid adenoma, lymphoscintigraphy, bone imaging in cancer patients, infection and nuclear cardiology
  • Clinical protocols for SPECT/CT
  • SPECT/CT: future goals
Play '11. Clinical applications of molecular imaging: imaging to guide cancer therapy (52 mins)'
11. Clinical applications of molecular imaging: imaging to guide cancer therapy (52 mins) More info
Prof. David Mankoff  –  University of Washington, USA


  • Anatomic vs. functional imaging
  • Functional imaging modalities
  • PET/CT
  • Radiotracer imaging
  • Existing cancer imaging paradigm
  • A new paradigm for cancer imaging
  • Imaging and targeted therapy
  • Biomarker imaging
  • ER expression and breast cancer endocrine therapy
  • Hypoxia-specific treatment
  • Biologic events in response to successful cancer therapy
  • Thymidine incorporation pathways
  • Bone metastasis response monitoring
  • FDG PET vs. bone scan
  • Neo-adjuvant therapy of breast cancer
  • Molecular imaging is a tool for measuring in vivo biology
  • Changes in breast cancer metabolism and blood flow predict pathologic response
  • Clinical trial of novel molecular imaging probes for cancer
  • ACRIN experimental imaging sciences committee

Reconstruction and Pre-Clinical Imaging
Play '12. Medical image reconstruction techniques (48 mins)'
12. Medical image reconstruction techniques (48 mins) More info
Prof. Andrew Reader  –  Montreal Neurological Institute, Canada


  • Overview of PET and the image reconstruction problem
  • Measured data: list-mode data, sinograms and backprojected images, from point sources to more complex objects
  • Line integral and convolution models, and the backproject then filter (BPF) algorithm
  • 2D and 3D PET data, sinograms and rebinning methods (SSRB, MSRB and FOR)
  • Object representation and the system model/matrix (creating the system matrix)
  • Incorporating object motion, resolution, time-of-flight, attenuation and normalization in the system model
  • Objective functions: least squares and maximum likelihood (ML), regularization
  • Deriving a maximum likelihood reconstruction algorithm: Expectation Maximization ML (EM-ML) reconstruction
  • Ordered subsets EM (OSEM) and ordinary Poisson OSEM
  • Fourier reconstruction and filtered backprojection (FBP), for PET and CT data
  • 3D FBP and the reprojection method (3D RP)
  • Example FBP and ML-EM reconstructions, post-smoothing
Play '13. Pre-clinical imaging centers: design, animal handling and examples (49 mins)'
13. Pre-clinical imaging centers: design, animal handling and examples (49 mins) More info
Dr. David Stout  –  University of California, Los Angeles, USA


  • Designing small animal imaging facilities
  • Imaging methods
  • Regulatory oversight
  • Infectious and carcinogenic agents
  • UCLA imaging experiments
  • Animal handling training
  • Systems and personnel requirements
  • Planning the flow of the workspace
  • Database and image management
  • Archiving and data retrieval
  • Operational considerations
  • Preclinical molecular imaging: why use animals?
  • Experimental design issues
  • Anaesthesia
  • Heating options
  • Blood sampling
  • Case studies
  • Optical imaging
  • Getting it right
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Prof. David Townsend Show Biography


Prof. David Townsend – University of Tennessee Medical Center, USA

David Townsend is a Professor of Medicine and Radiology, and Director of the Cancer Imaging and Tracer Development Program at the University of Tennessee Medical Center, USA. He obtained his PhD in particle physics from the University of London and worked for eight years at the European Centre for Nuclear Research in Geneva, Switzerland. In 1980, Dr Townsend moved to Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland as a physicist in the Department of Nuclear Medicine. In 1995, Dr. Townsend was Principal Investigator on the first proposal to design and build a combined PET/CT scanner, which TIME Magazine named as the medical invention of the year in 2000.

Publication Date  /  Last Updated

April, 2010  /  October, 2010


Play 'The genetic basis of kidney cancer'
The genetic basis of kidney cancer More info
Dr. W. Marston Linehan


  • Renal Carcinoma
  • Stage I , Stage IV kidney cancer
  • Human Renal Epithelial Neoplasms
  • Loss of alleles in renal cell carcinoma
  • Mapping the Minimal 3p Loss Region in Clear Cell Renal Carcinoma
  • Studying Cancer Families to Identify Renal Carcinoma Genes
  • Identification of Kidney Cancer Genes
  • Inherited Forms of Renal Carcinoma
  • Clear Cell Renal Carcinoma: von Hippel Lindau (VHL)
  • VHL Gene
  • VHL Gene Localization Map
  • Germline VHL Mutations
  • Papillary Renal Carcinoma
  • Mouse Studies of VHL gene
  • VHL Gene Function
  • HIFα
  • Downstream effects of VHL mutation
  • Targeting VHL/HIF in Clear Cell RCC
  • TCGA Clear Cell Kidney Cancer
  • Intratumor Heterogeneity
  • Warburg effect in clear cell kidney cancer
  • Non-Clear Cell RCC
  • Locally Advanced Kidney Cancer
  • Hereditary Papillary Renal Carcinoma (HPRC)
  • Inherited Renal Carcinoma
  • Type 1 Papillary Renal Carcinoma
  • Penetrance of MET Mutation H1210R
  • MET Gene: Type 1 Papillary RCC
  • Location of the HPRC Gene
  • HPRC: Activating Mutations in the Tyrosine Kinase Domain of MET
  • Location of MET Mutations in the HPRC Patients
  • Targeting MET RCC Gene Pathway
  • Potential Small Molecule Target: MET Tyrosine Kinase Inhibition
  • Foretinib: Dual VEGFR and MET Inhibitor
  • MiT Kidney Cancer TFE3, TFEB, MITF
  • UOK124, Papillary Kidney Cancer
  • UOK124, UOK120, UOK 146 & TFE3 Kidney Cancer
  • Inherited Renal Carcinoma Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD)
  • Birt Hogg Dubé Cutaneous Manifestations
  • Kidney Tumors in BHD
  • BHD Renal Tumor Pathology
  • BHD Lung Cysts
  • Identification of the BHD Gene
  • Cutaneous Fibrofolliculomas
  • BHD Gene: Chromophobe RCC
  • BHD Gene Locus: Chromosome 17
  • BHD Protein Sequence
  • FLCN Mutation Spectrum
  • Therapeutic Approach: What Kind of Gene is FLCN?
  • BHD Gene Analysis in BHD-Associated RCC
  • Somatic mutations in renal tumors from BHD patients
  • UOK 257, BHD -/- RCC cell line Study
  • How Does the FLCN Gene Function?
  • Folliculin-FNIP1/2-AMPK Interactions
  • mTORC1/mTORC2 Activation: FLCN-Deficient Kidney Cancer
  • BHD Deletion Specifically in the Kidney
  • BHDf/d/KSPCre Mouse Kidney Study
  • Hereditary Leiomyomatosis Renal Cell Carcinoma (HLRCC)
  • HLRCC: Cutaneous Manifestations, Uterine Leiomyomas
  • HLRCC: Papillary Kidney Cancer Type 2
  • Orangophilic Nucleoli + Perinucleolar Halos
  • Fumarate Hydratase Gene: HLRCC
  • UOK-262 Study
  • Loss of a Krebs Cycle Enzyme Can Lead to Kidney Cancer
  • Impaired citric acid cycle and “Warburg effect”
  • HLRCC-Renal Cancer: Glucose-Dependent
  • PET Scan
  • HLRCC novel treatment approaches
  • Kidney Cancer: a Metabolic Disease


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