Henry Stewart Talks

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Series: Medical Imaging

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Imaging Techniques for Pre-clinical and Clinical Applications

TALKS IN THIS SERIES (13)

Basic Techniques
Play '1. Basics of Computed Tomography (CT) (59 mins)'
1. Basics of Computed Tomography (CT) (59 mins) More info
Prof. Marc Kachelrie├č  –  German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) Heidelberg, Germany

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Technical basics of clinical X-ray CT
  • From single-slice to multi slice
  • The CT hardware
  • Mechanics
  • X-ray source and X-ray detector technology
  • Image reconstruction of circular, sequential and spiral CT
  • Specific applications
  • Dose reduction strategies
Play '2. Basics of nuclear medicine imaging (52 mins)'
2. Basics of nuclear medicine imaging (52 mins) More info
Prof. Dale Bailey  –  University of Sydney, Australia

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Basics of nuclear physics used in nuclear medicine, imaging and therapy
  • Devices used including gamma camera, SPECT and PET imaging
  • Multimodality imaging devices (SPECT/CT, PET/CT)
  • Radiation dosimetry for nuclear medicine
Play '3. Principles of SPECT (33 mins)'
3. Principles of SPECT (33 mins) More info
Prof. Larry Zeng  –  University of Utah, USA

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • SPECT is functional imaging
  • Emission tomography
  • Basics of nuclear physics
  • SPECT instrumentation
  • SPECT imaging
  • SPECT image reconstruction
Play '4. Fundamental principles of positron emission tomography (PET) - part 1 (56 mins)'
4. Fundamental principles of positron emission tomography (PET) - part 1 (56 mins) More info
Dr. Osama Mawlawi  –  MD Anderson Cancer Center, USA

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Principles of PET imaging
  • The PET process
  • Positron decay
  • Nuclide production
  • Decay schemes of 18-F
  • Image reconstruction
  • Different views when using PET scanners
  • The process of image formation in details
  • Annihilation - Detector/photomultiplier design
  • Energy trigger, measurement and qualification
  • Event positioning
  • Coincidence assessment of singles events
  • Steps involved in coincidence assessment
  • Coincidence acceptance angles (Transverse & Axial)
  • Coincidence timing comparison
  • Overall LOR determination process
  • LOR data storage
  • Sample sinograms
  • Detector assembly
  • Direct and cross planes
  • Axial sampling and slice sensitivity
  • Michelograms
  • Further improvement in sensitivity
  • 2D and 3D
  • Inter-plane septa
  • Type of recorded events
  • Two ways of measuring randoms in PET
  • Randoms estimation
  • Scatter and its extent in PET images
  • KCPS vs. activity concentration
  • Scatter correction
  • Power of PET by quantification
  • Normalization
  • Dead-time
  • Decay correction - Geometric correction
  • Attenuation measurement
  • Calculated attenuation correction
  • Segmented attenuation correction
  • Effect of attenuation correction on PET image
  • CT based attenuation correction
  • Calibration
  • Factors affecting image resolution
  • Detector size
  • Depth of interaction
  • Resolution improvement
  • Positron range
  • Non co-linearity
  • Linear and angular sampling
  • Image matrix
  • Reconstruction filter
Play '5. Fundamental principles of positron emission tomography (PET) - part 2 (31 mins)'
5. Fundamental principles of positron emission tomography (PET) - part 2 (31 mins) More info
Dr. Osama Mawlawi  –  MD Anderson Cancer Center, USA

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Aspects of PET imaging
  • Image reconstruction
  • Filtered Back Projection
  • Iterative reconstruction
  • Reconstruction comparison
  • Factors affecting scanner sensitivity
  • 2D and 3D
  • Increase in sensitivity in 3D over 2D
  • Disadvantages of 3D imaging: loss of contrast & image quality
  • Improved sensitivity
  • Quantitative PET performance
  • Phantom study
  • Motion effects
  • Partial volume effect
  • PET data acquisition schemes
  • Static & dynamic modes
  • Gated PET
  • Time of flight (TOF) acquisition
  • Hybrid scanner: PET/CT imaging
  • Rationale of PET/CT
  • Types of artifacts
  • Current PET/CT scanner status
  • Different types of PET/CT scanners
  • Radiation exposure
  • Available dosimetry tools
  • PET applications
  • Scanning Melanoma, Lymphoma and Brain Astrocytoma
  • Imaging in Neurology: Parkinson's disease
  • Receptor binding
  • Imaging in Cardiology
Play '6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (23 mins)'
6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (23 mins) More info
Dr. Sendhil Velan  –  Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, Singapore

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • History of magnetic resonance
  • Magnetic resonance scanners
  • Nuclei in a magnetic field -Excitation
  • Chemical shifts
  • T1 relaxation
  • T2 relaxation
  • Spin echo
  • Gradient echo and its imaging sequence
  • Slice selection/thickness
  • Phase and frequency encoding of the MR signal
  • Spatial resolution
  • K space
  • Image contrast and noise
  • T1 contrast: TR and flip angle
  • T2 contrast
  • Signal to noise and contrast to noise in MRI
  • Localized spectroscopy
  • Volume localized MRS sequence
  • Volume localization using PRESS
  • STEAM
  • Brain MRS
  • Spectroscopic imaging
Play '7. Optical imaging in biomedicine (30 mins)'
7. Optical imaging in biomedicine (30 mins) More info
Prof. Malini Olivo  –  National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • What is biophotonics?
  • The need for biophotonics in medicine
  • Photomedicine in cancer
  • In vivo optical imaging in cancer detection
  • Endoscopic optical biopsy
  • Real-time clinical fluorescence diagnostic system
  • Image analysis algorithm
  • Diagnostic accuracy of bladder and oral cancer detection using fluorescence
  • Macroscopic fluorescence analysis in the oral cavity and cervix
  • Ex-vivo optical methods
  • Autofluorescence lifetime studies
  • Towards a 3D fluorescence in vivo cellular diagnostic system
  • Optical coherence tomography (OCT)
  • OCT vs. confocal imaging
  • Nano-oncology
  • Nano-based imaging
  • Nano-drug delivery systems

Cross-Modality and Clinical Applications
Play '8. Dual-modality imaging with combined scanners part 1 (47 mins)'
8. Dual-modality imaging with combined scanners part 1 (47 mins) More info
Dr. Thomas Beyer  –  cmi-experts GmbH, Switzerland

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Imaging and diagnosis
  • Combined imaging and software fusion
  • Early SPECT/CT development
  • The SMART PET/CT
  • PET/MR developments
  • PET/MR developments
  • Clinical dual-modality imaging
  • Advancing SPECT/CT
  • Advances in SPECT/CT technology
Play '9. Dual-modality imaging with combined scanners part 2 (50 mins)'
9. Dual-modality imaging with combined scanners part 2 (50 mins) More info
Dr. Thomas Beyer  –  cmi-experts GmbH, Switzerland

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Advances in PET(/CT) technology
  • Time-of-flight PET
  • Novel PET/CT system designs
  • Advances in CT technology
  • Patient and staff exposure
  • Imaging guidelines: PET/CT and SPECT/CT
  • PET/MR or PET/CT?
  • PET/MR design considerations
  • Pre-clinical imaging using dual-modality scanners
Play '10. Clinical indications for SPECT/CT (42 mins)'
10. Clinical indications for SPECT/CT (42 mins) More info
Prof. Ora Israel  –  Rambam Health Care Campus and Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Israel

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • History of SPECT/CT
  • Pitfalls and sources of errors in SPECT/CT imaging
  • Referral criteria to SPECT/CT
  • Clinical SPECT/CT devices
  • Clinical indications for SPECT/CT: endocrine disease
  • Neuroendocrine tumors, thyroid cancer, parathyroid adenoma, lymphoscintigraphy, bone imaging in cancer patients, infection and nuclear cardiology
  • Clinical protocols for SPECT/CT
  • SPECT/CT: future goals
Play '11. Clinical applications of molecular imaging: imaging to guide cancer therapy (52 mins)'
11. Clinical applications of molecular imaging: imaging to guide cancer therapy (52 mins) More info
Prof. David Mankoff  –  University of Washington, USA

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Anatomic vs. functional imaging
  • Functional imaging modalities
  • PET/CT
  • Radiotracer imaging
  • Existing cancer imaging paradigm
  • A new paradigm for cancer imaging
  • Imaging and targeted therapy
  • Biomarker imaging
  • ER expression and breast cancer endocrine therapy
  • Hypoxia-specific treatment
  • Biologic events in response to successful cancer therapy
  • Thymidine incorporation pathways
  • Bone metastasis response monitoring
  • FDG PET vs. bone scan
  • Neo-adjuvant therapy of breast cancer
  • Molecular imaging is a tool for measuring in vivo biology
  • Changes in breast cancer metabolism and blood flow predict pathologic response
  • Clinical trial of novel molecular imaging probes for cancer
  • ACRIN experimental imaging sciences committee

Reconstruction and Pre-Clinical Imaging
Play '12. Medical image reconstruction techniques (48 mins)'
12. Medical image reconstruction techniques (48 mins) More info
Prof. Andrew Reader  –  Montreal Neurological Institute, Canada

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Overview of PET and the image reconstruction problem
  • Measured data: list-mode data, sinograms and backprojected images, from point sources to more complex objects
  • Line integral and convolution models, and the backproject then filter (BPF) algorithm
  • 2D and 3D PET data, sinograms and rebinning methods (SSRB, MSRB and FOR)
  • Object representation and the system model/matrix (creating the system matrix)
  • Incorporating object motion, resolution, time-of-flight, attenuation and normalization in the system model
  • Objective functions: least squares and maximum likelihood (ML), regularization
  • Deriving a maximum likelihood reconstruction algorithm: Expectation Maximization ML (EM-ML) reconstruction
  • Ordered subsets EM (OSEM) and ordinary Poisson OSEM
  • Fourier reconstruction and filtered backprojection (FBP), for PET and CT data
  • 3D FBP and the reprojection method (3D RP)
  • Example FBP and ML-EM reconstructions, post-smoothing
Play '13. Pre-clinical imaging centers: design, animal handling and examples (49 mins)'
13. Pre-clinical imaging centers: design, animal handling and examples (49 mins) More info
Dr. David Stout  –  University of California, Los Angeles, USA

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Designing small animal imaging facilities
  • Imaging methods
  • Regulatory oversight
  • Infectious and carcinogenic agents
  • UCLA imaging experiments
  • Animal handling training
  • Systems and personnel requirements
  • Planning the flow of the workspace
  • Database and image management
  • Archiving and data retrieval
  • Operational considerations
  • Preclinical molecular imaging: why use animals?
  • Experimental design issues
  • Anaesthesia
  • Heating options
  • Blood sampling
  • Case studies
  • Optical imaging
  • Getting it right
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ABOUT THIS SERIES

Editor(s)

Prof. David Townsend Show Biography

EDITOR BIOGRAPHY

Prof. David Townsend – University of Tennessee Medical Center, USA

David Townsend is a Professor of Medicine and Radiology, and Director of the Cancer Imaging and Tracer Development Program at the University of Tennessee Medical Center, USA. He obtained his PhD in particle physics from the University of London and worked for eight years at the European Centre for Nuclear Research in Geneva, Switzerland. In 1980, Dr Townsend moved to Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland as a physicist in the Department of Nuclear Medicine. In 1995, Dr. Townsend was Principal Investigator on the first proposal to design and build a combined PET/CT scanner, which TIME Magazine named as the medical invention of the year in 2000.

Publication Date  /  Last Updated

April, 2010  /  October, 2010

FREE TALK OF THE MONTH

Play 'Stem cells derived from amniotic fluid and placenta'
Stem cells derived from amniotic fluid and placenta More info
Prof. Anthony Atala

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Introduction to the amniotic fluid and placenta
  • Collecting stem cells from the amniotic fluid or placenta
  • Cell markers in amniotic fluid or placenta derived stem cells
  • Amniotic fluid or placenta derived stem cells are able to form embryoid bodies
  • Uses of amniotic fluid or placenta derived stem cells: Immunomodulation
  • Uses of amniotic fluid or placenta derived stem cells: Regenerative medicine
  • Amniotic fluid or placenta derived stem cells can be differentiated into a variety of cell types
  • Amniotic fluid stems cells in the kidney
  • Necrotizing enterocolitis; a model and treatment with amniotic fluid stems cells
  • Clinical uses of amniotic fluid or placenta derived stem cells

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